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Mathematics  2014 

Some limit results for Markov chains indexed by trees

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We consider a sequence of Markov chains $(\mathcal X^n)_{n=1,2,...}$ with $\mathcal X^n = (X^n_\sigma)_{\sigma\in\mathcal T}$, indexed by the full binary tree $\mathcal T = \mathcal T_0 \cup \mathcal T_1 \cup ...$, where $\mathcal T_k$ is the $k$th generation of $\mathcal T$. In addition, let $(\Sigma_k)_{k=0,1,2,...}$ be a random walk on $\mathcal T$ with $\Sigma_k \in \mathcal T_k$ and $\widetilde{\mathcal R}^n = (\widetilde R_t^n)_{t\geq 0}$ with $\widetilde R_t^n := X_{\Sigma_{[tn]}}$, arising by observing the Markov chain $\mathcal X^n$ along the random walk. We present a law of large numbers concerning the empirical measure process $\widetilde{\mathcal Z}^n = (\widetilde Z_t^n)_{t\geq 0}$ where $\widetilde{Z}_t^n = \sum_{\sigma\in\mathcal T_{[tn]}} \delta_{X_\sigma^n}$ as $n\to\infty$. Precisely, we show that if $\widetilde{\mathcal R}^n \to \mathcal R$ for some Feller process $\mathcal R = (R_t)_{t\geq 0}$ with deterministic initial condition, then $\widetilde{\mathcal Z}^n \to \mathcal Z$ with $Z_t = \delta_{\mathcal L(R_t)}$.


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