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Mathematics  2013 

Rough sets determined by tolerances

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijar.2013.12.005

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Abstract:

We show that for any tolerance $R$ on $U$, the ordered sets of lower and upper rough approximations determined by $R$ form ortholattices. These ortholattices are completely distributive, thus forming atomistic Boolean lattices, if and only if $R$ is induced by an irredundant covering of $U$, and in such a case, the atoms of these Boolean lattices are described. We prove that the ordered set $\mathit{RS}$ of rough sets determined by a tolerance $R$ on $U$ is a complete lattice if and only if it is a complete subdirect product of the complete lattices of lower and upper rough approximations. We show that $R$ is a tolerance induced by an irredundant covering of $U$ if and only if $\mathit{RS}$ is an algebraic completely distributive lattice, and in such a situation a quasi-Nelson algebra can be defined on $\mathit{RS}$. We present necessary and sufficient conditions which guarantee that for a tolerance $R$ on $U$, the ordered set $\mathit{RS}_X$ is a lattice for all $X \subseteq U$, where $R_X$ denotes the restriction of $R$ to the set $X$ and $\mathit{RS}_X$ is the corresponding set of rough sets. We introduce the disjoint representation and the formal concept representation of rough sets, and show that they are Dedekind--MacNeille completions of $\mathit{RS}$.

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