Summary: Tuberculosis is a common infectious disease in chronic hemodialysis due to alteration of the immune system associated with chronic kidney disease. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in chronic hemodialysis patients and to identify its diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Methods and patients: This was a descriptive retrospective study over a period of 20 years (1994-2014). It includes the records of periodic hemodialysis patients in the Nephrology Department of the Aristide Le Dantec University Teaching Hospital in Dakar which clinical symptoms and laboratory favor tuberculosis. Results: Of 258 chronic hemodialysis patients treated in Hospital Aristide Le Dantec hemodialysis center, 29 cases (11.4%) of tuberculosis disease are diagnosed. The mean age is 43.21 ± 12.48 years, and the sex-ratio is 0.8. The median time to onset of tuberculosis after initiation of hemodialysis is 22.86 ± 28.86 months. The diagnosis of tuberculosis is sure only in 17% of cases. Extra-pulmonary sites are found in 79% of cases. The average duration of treatment is 9.39 ± 1.64 months (6 - 13 months). Various treatment protocols are adopted. Mortality is 21%, 50% due to disseminated tuberculosis. Conclusion: The diagnosis of tuberculosis in the chronic hemodialysis patients is often difficult due to the atypical symptoms, the frequency of extra-pulmonary location and the lack of evidence of sure diagnosis.
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