All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiation Dose Rate in Some Soil Samples from Historical Area, AL-RAKKAH, Saudi Arabia

DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.75027, PP. 238-247

Keywords: Soil, Gamma Ray Spectroscopy, Radioactivity, Dose Rate, Alrakkah, Saudi Arabia

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the activity concentrations of naturally occurring, technically-enhanced levels of radiation and the gamma absorbed dose rates in soil samples collected across the land scape of historical area which discovered in east of Saudi Arabia at 2009 G, Called AL- RAKKAH. By using an HPGe detector gamma-ray spectrometer, the activity concentrations of 226Ra 232Th and 40K were found in surface soil samples ranged from 17. 4 ± 1.2 Bq/kg to 28.3 ± 2.3 Bq/kg with an average value of 23 ± 1.6 Bq/kg, ranging from 1.1 ± 1.8 Bq/kg to 81.0 ± 1.7 Bq/kg with the average value 20 ± 1.4 Bq/kg and from 218 ± 11 Bq/kg to 255 ± 18 Bq/kg, with the mean value of 233 ± 12 Bq/kg respectively. The mean radium equivalent (Raeq) and outdoor radiation hazard index (Hex) for the area under study were determined as 69.52 Bq/kg and 0.16 respectively. The total absorbed dose rate due to three primordial radionuclides lies in the range of 17.74 - 72.24 nGy·h-1 with a mean of 32.69 nGy·h-1, which yields total annual effective dose of 0.37 mSv·y-1. The measured values are comparable with other global radioactivity measurements and are found to be safe for public and environment. The baseline data of this type will almost certainly be of importance in making estimations of population exposure.

References

[1]  EPA (2007) United States. Ionizing Radiation, Fact book. Enviromental Protection Agency, March 2007. EPA-402-F- 06-061.
[2]  UNSCEAR (1988) United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation: Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, Report to the General Assembly, United Nations, New York.
[3]  UNSCEAR (2000) Report to General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes, Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, United Nations, New York.
[4]  Sroor, A., El-Bahi, S.M., Ahmed, F. and Abdel-Haleem, A.S. (2001) Natural Radioactivity and Radon Exhalation Rate of Soil in Southern Egypt. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 55, 873-879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(01)00123-3
[5]  Rahmana, Md.R., Shi, Z.H. and Chongfa, C. (2009) Soil Erosion Hazard Evaluation—An Integrated Use of Remote Sensing, GIS and Statistical Approaches with Biophysical Parameters towards Management Strategies. Ecological Modelling, 220, 1724-1734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.04.004
[6]  Kurnaz, A., Kucukomeroglu, B., Keser, R., Okumusoglu, N.T., Korkmaz, F., Karahan, G. and Gevik, U.(2007) Determination of Radioactivity Levels and Hazards of Soil and sediment Samples in Firtina Valley (Rize, Turkey). Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 65, 1281-1289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2007.06.001
[7]  Akhtar, N., Tafail, M., Ashraf, M. and Iqbal, M. (2005) Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity for Estimation of Radiation Exposure from Saline Soil of Lahore, Pakistan. Radiation Measurements, 39, 11-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2004.02.016
[8]  Ramli, A.T., Hussein, A.W.M.A. and Wood, A.K. (2005) Environmental 238U and 232Th Concentration Measurements in an Area of High Level Natural Background Radiation at Palong, Johor, Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 80, 287-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.06.008
[9]  Rani, A. and Surinder, S. (2005) Natural Radioactivity Levels in Soil Samples from Some Areas of Himachal Pradesh, India Using γ-Ray Spectrometry. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 6306-6314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.07.050
[10]  Yang, Y.-X., Wu, X.-M., Jiang, Z.-Y., Wang, W.-X., Lu, J.-G., Lin, J., Wang, L.-M. and Hsia, Y.-F. (2005) Radioactivity Concentrations in Soils of the Xiazhuang Granite Area, China. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 63, 255-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2005.02.011
[11]  Banzi, F.P., Kifanga, L.D. and Bundala, F.M. (2000) Natural Radioactivity and Radiation Exposure at the Minjingu Phosphate Mine in Tanzania. Journal of Radiological Protection, 20, 41-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/20/1/305
[12]  Karahan, G. and Bayulken, A. (2000) Assessment of Gamma Dose Rates around Istanbul (Turkey). Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 47, 213-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(99)00034-X
[13]  Al-Hamarneh, I.F. and Awadallah, M.I. (2009) Soil Radioactivity Levels and Radiation Hazard Assessment in the Highlands of Northern Jordan. Radiation Measurements, 44, 102-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.11.005
[14]  Zarie, K.A. and Al Mugren, K.S. (2010) Measurement of Natural Radioactivity and Assessment of Radiation Hazard in Soil Samples from Tammy Area (KSA). Isotope and Radiation Research, 42, 1-9.
[15]  Saad, H.R. and Al-Azmi, D. (2002) Radioactivity Concentrations in Sediments and Their Correlation to the Coastal Structure in Kuwait. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 56, 991-997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(02)00061-1
[16]  Goddard, C.C. (2001) Measurement of Outdoor Terrestrial Gamma Radiation in the Sultanate of Oman. Health Physics, 82, 869-874. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004032-200206000-00016
[17]  Akhtar, N., Tufail, M., Ashraf, M. and Mohsin Iqbal, M. (2005) Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity for Estimation of Radiation Exposure from Saline Soil of Lahore, Pakistan. Radiation Measurements, 39, 11-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2004.02.016
[18]  Alhajerey, M.Y. (2001) Report on Acts of Archaeological Excavations Alkhobar Site, The First Season, 200911/16/ 1430 e - 29/04/1431 e, General Authority for Tourism and Antiquities Antiquities and Museums Sector, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
[19]  Veiga, R., Sanches, N., Anjos, R.M., Macario, K., Bastos, J., Iguatemy, M., Aguiar, J.G., Santos, A.M.A., Mosquera, B., Carvalho, C., Baptista Filho, M. and Umisedo, N.K. (2006) Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Brazilian Beach Sands. Radiation Measurements, 41, 189-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2005.05.001
[20]  IAEA (1989) Measurement of Radionuclides in Food and the Environment. IAEA Technical Report Series No. 295, Vienna.
[21]  Mollah, A.S., Rahman, M.M., Kodlus, M.A., Husain, S.R. and Malek, M.A. (1987) Measurement of High Natural Background Radiation Levels by TLD at Cox’s Bazar Coastal Areas in Bangladesh. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 18, 39-41.
[22]  El-Taher, A. and Madkour, H.A. (2011) Distribution and Environmental Impacts of Metals and Natural Radionuclides in Marine Sediments In-Front of Different Wadies Mouth along the Egyptian Red Sea Coast. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69, 550-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.11.010
[23]  Abbady, A.G.E. (2004) Estimation of Radiation Hazard Indices from Sedimentary Rocks in Upper Egypt. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 60, 111-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2003.09.012
[24]  Uosif, M.A.M., El-Taher, A. and Abbady, A.G.E. (2008) Radiological Significance of Beach Sand Used for Climatotherapy from Safaga, Egypt. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 131, 331-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncn175
[25]  Al-Sulaiti, H., Tabassum, N., Al Mugren, K.S., Alkhomashi, N., Al-Dahan, N., Al-Dosari, M., Bradley, D.A., Bukhari, S., Matthews, M., Regan, P.H., Santawamaitre, T., Malain, D. and Habib, A. (2012) Determination of the Natural Radioactivity Levels in North West of Dukhan, Qatar Using High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 70, 1344-1350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.11.015
[26]  El-Taher, A. and Al-Zahrani, J.H. (2014) Radioactivity Measurements and Radiation Dose Assessments in Soil of Al-Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 52, 147-154.
[27]  NCRP (1975) Background Radiation in the USA Recommendation of the National Council of Radiation and Measurements. Report No. 45.
[28]  Tzortzis, M., Tsertos, H., Christofider, S. and Christodoulides, G. (2003) Gamma-Ray Measurements of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Samples from Cyprus Characteristic Geological Rocks. Radiation Measurements, 37, 221-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00028-3
[29]  Al-Aamer, A.S. (2008) Assessment of Human Exposures to Natural Sources of Radiation in Soil of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, 32, 229-234.
[30]  Al-Zahrani, J.H. (2012) Radioactivity Measurements and Radiation Dose Assessments in Soil of Albaha Region (Saudi Arabia). Life Science Journal, 9, 2391-2397.
[31]  Abdul-Majid, S. and Abulfaraj, W. (1992) Radioactivity Concentration in Soil in Jeddah Area, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, 27, 105-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529209375719
[32]  Nasir, T., Al-Sulaiti, H. and Regan, P.H. (2012) Assessment of Radioactivity in Some Soil Samples of Qatar by Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and the Derived Dose Rates. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. Series A: Physical Sciences, 55, 128-134.
[33]  Abd El-mageed, A.I., El-Kamel, A.H., Abbady, A., Harb, S., Youssef, A.M.M. and Saleh, I.I. (2011) Assessment of Natural and Anthropogenic Radioactivity Levels in Rocks and Soils in the Environments of Juban Town in Yemen. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 80, 710-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2011.02.025
[34]  Kolo, M.T., Baba-Kutigi, A.N., Olarinoye, I.O. and Sharifat, I. (2012) Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiation Hazards in the Tertiary Institutions in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Environmental Sciences, 6, 25-31.
[35]  Taskin, H., Karavus, M., Ayb, P., Topuzoglu, A., Hidiroglu, S. and Karahan, G. (2009) Radionuclide Concentrations in Soil and Lifetime Cancer Risk Due to Gamma Radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 100, 49-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.10.012
[36]  Krieger, R. (1981) Radioactivity of Construction Materials. Betonwerk und Fertigteil-Technik/Concrete Precasting Plant and Technology, 47, 468-446.
[37]  Beretka, J. and Mathew, P.J. (1985) Natural Radioactivity of Australian Building Materials, Industrial Wastes and by Products. Health Physics, 48, 87-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198501000-00007
[38]  Stranden, E. (1976) Some Aspects on Radioactivity of Building Materials. Physica Norvegica, 8, 167-173.
[39]  Venturini, L. and Nisti, M.B. (1997) Natural Radioactivity of Some Brazilian Building Materials. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 71, 227-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a032058
[40]  UNSCEAR-United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (1993) Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations, New York.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus