Administration of genistein to barrows increased anterior pituitary (AP) concentrations of IGF-I and LH and increased expression of AP IGF receptor. Whether similar changes occur in gilts remains to be determined. The objective of this experiment was to determine if short term administration of genistein increased expression of components of the AP IGF system and hypothalamic hormones and receptors involved in gonadotropin synthesis and/or release in the gilt. Sixteen crossbred gilts of similar weight (97.7 kg) were ovariectomized and assigned to either control (C; n = 8) or genistein (G; n = 8) groups. Genistein pigs received 800 mg of genistein in DMSO while C pigs received an equal volume of DMSO i.m. on day 0, 1, 2, and 3. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 1, 2, and 3. Pigs were slaughtered on d 4 when blood, AP, and medial basal hypothalami (MBH) were collected. No difference was detected (P > 0.05) in AP concentrations of IGF-I or serum concentrations of IGF-I in C and G pigs. Anterior pituitary concentrations of LH were greater (P < 0.05) in G pigs compared with C pigs. Relative expression of AP IGF-I was greater (P < 0.05) in G pigs than C pigs. Relative expression of AP IGF-IR, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 did not differ (P > 0.05) in C and G pigs. Relative expression of AP IGFBP-5 and GnRHR was increased (P < 0.05) in G pigs compared with C pigs. Relative expression of AP LHβ did not differ between C and G pigs. Relative expression of MBH kisspeptin was greater (P < 0.01) in G pigs than C pigs. These data provided evidence that short term administration of genistein increased expression of hypothalamic and hypophyseal hormones in gilts which could influence subsequent reproduction.
Kuiper, G.G., Lemmen, J.G., Carlsson, B., Corton, J.C., Safe, S.H., van der Saag, P.T., van der Burg, B. and Gustafsson, J.A. (1998) Interaction of Estrogenic Chemicals and Phytoestrogens with Estrogen Receptor Beta. Endocrinology, 139, 4252-4263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/endo.139.10.6216
Allred, C.D., Ju, Y.H., Allred, K.F., Chang, J. and Helferich, W.G. (2001) Dietary Genistin Stimulates Growth of Estrogen-Dependent Breast Cancer Tumors Similar to That Observed with Genistein. Carcinogenesis, 22, 1667-1673. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/22.10.1667
Makarevich, A., Sirotkin, A., Taradajnik, T. and Chrenek, P. (1997) Effects of Genistein and Lavendustin on Reproductive Processes in Domestic Animals in Vitro. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 63, 329-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-0760(97)00092-7
Clapper, J. and Tomlin, A. (2012) Effects of the Phytoestrogen Genistein on the Porcine Anterior Pituitary Insulin-Like Growth Factor System. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 42, 173-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2011.11.007
Whitley, N.C., Barb, C.R., Utley, R.V., Popwell, J.M., Kraeling, R.R. and Rampacek, G.B. (1995) Influence of Stage of the Estrous Cycle on Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Modulation of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in the Gilt. Biology of Reproduction, 53, 1359-1364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod53.6.1359
Echternkamp, S.E., Spicer, L.J., Gregory, K.E., Canning, S.F. and Hammond, J.M. (1990) Concentrations of Insulin- Like Growth Factor-I in Blood and Ovarian Follicular Fluid of Cattle Selected for Twins. Biology of Reproduction, 43, 8-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod43.1.8
Funston, R.N., Moss, G.E. and Roberts, A.J. (1995) Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-Binding Proteins in Bovine Sera and Pituitaries at Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle. Endocrinology, 136, 62-68.
Daughaday, W.H., Mariz, I.K. and Blethen, S.L. (1980) Inhibition of Access of Bound Somatomedin to Membrane Receptor and Immunobinding Sites: a Comparison of Radioreceptor and Radioimmunoassay of Somatomedin in Native and Acid-Ethanol-Extracted Serum. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 51, 781-788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem-51-4-781
Clapper, J.A., Snyder, J.L., Roberts, A.J., Hamernik, D.L. and Moss, G.E. (1998) Estradiol Increases Relative Amounts of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein (IGFBP)-3 in Serum and Expression of IGFBP-2 in Anterior Pituitaries of Ewes. Biology of Reproduction, 59, 124-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod59.1.124
Ciereszko, R., Opalka, M., Kaminska, B., Gorska, T. and Dusza, L. (2003) Prolactin Signalling in Porcine Theca Cells: The Involvement of Protein Kinases and Phosphatases. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 15, 27-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD02049
Gorski, K., Gajewska, A., Romanowicz, K. and Misztal, T. (2007) Genistein-Induced Pituitary Prolactin Gene Expression and Prolactin Release in Ovariectomized Ewes Following a Series of Intracerebroventricular Infusions. Reproductive Biology, 7, 233-246.
Chen, W.F. and Wong, M.S. (2004) Genistein Enhances Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling Pathway in Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Cells. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 2351-2359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2003-032065
Rempel, L.A. and Clapper, J.A. (2002) Administration of Estradiol-17β Increases Anterior Pituitary IGF-I and Relative Amounts of Serum and Anterior Pituitary IGF-Binding Proteins in Barrows. Journal of Animal Science, 80, 214-224.
Hays, C.L., Davenport, G.M., Osborn, T.G. and Mulvaney, D.R. (1995) Effect of Dietary Protein and Estradiol-17β on Growth and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I in Cattle during Realimentation. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 589-597.
Farmer, C., Robertson, P. and Gilani, G.S. (2013) Effects of Dose and Route of Administration of Genistein on Isoflavone Concentrations in Post-Weaned and Gestating Sows. Animal, 7, 983-989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731113000037
Di, X., Yu, L., Moore, A.B., Castro, L., Zheng, X., Hermon, T. and Dixon, D. (2008) A Low Concentration of Geni- stein Induces Estrogen Receptor-Alpha and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Receptor Interactions and Proliferation in Uterine Leiomyoma Cells. Human Reproduction, 23, 1873-1883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/den087
Kalbe, C., Mau, M. and Rehfeldt, C. (2008) Developmental Changes and the Impact of Isoflavones on mRNA Expression of IGF-I Receptor, EGF Receptor and Related Growth Factors in Porcine Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 18, 424-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2008.03.002
Chen, Y.C., Nagpal, M.L., Stocco, D.M. and Lin, T. (2007) Effects of Genistein, Resveratrol, and Quercetin on Steroidogenesis and Proliferation of MA-10 Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells. Journal of Endocrinology, 192, 527-537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JOE-06-0087
Clapper, J. and Taylor, A. (2011) Components of the Porcine Anterior Pituitary Insulin-Like Growth Factor System throughout the Estrous Cycle. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 40, 67-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2010.09.001
Voge, J.L., Santiago, C.A., Aad, P.Y., Goad, D.W., Malayer, J.R. and Spicer, L.J. (2004) Quantification of Insulin- Like Growth Factor Binding Protein mRNA Using Real-Time PCR in Bovine Granulosa and Theca Cells: Effect of Estradiol, Insulin, and Gonadotropins. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 26, 241-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2003.11.002
Suzuki, A., Urushitani, H., Watanabe, H., Sato, T., Iguchi, T., Kobayashi, T. and Ohta, Y. (2007) Comparison of Estrogen Responsive Genes in the Mouse Uterus, Vagina and Mammary Gland. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 69, 725-731. http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.69.725
Hilleson-Gayne, C.K. and Clapper, J.A. (2005) Effects of Decreased Estradiol-17β on the Serum and Anterior Pituitary IGF-I System in Pigs. Journal of Endocrinology, 187, 369-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.1.06253
Khalid, M., Haresign, W. and Hunter, M.G. (1987) Pulsatile GnRH Administration Stimulates the Number of Pituitary GnRH Receptors in Seasonally Anoestrous Ewes. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 79, 223-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/jrf.0.0790223
Nett, T.M., Crowder, M.E., Moss, G.E. and Duello, T.M. (1981) GnRH-Receptor Interaction. V. Down-Regulation of Pituitary Receptors for GnRH in Ovariectomized Ewes by Infusion of Homologous Hormone. Biology of Reproduction, 24, 1145-1155.
Turzillo, A.M., DiGregorio, G.B. and Nett, T.M. (1995) Messenger Ribonucleic Acid for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Numbers of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors in Ovariectomized Ewes after Hypothalamic-Pituitary Disconnection and Treatment with Estradiol. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 1784-1788.
Turzillo, A.M., Clapper, J.A., Moss, G.E. and Nett, T.M. (1998) Regulation of Ovine GnRH Receptor Gene Expression by Progesterone and Oestradiol. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 113, 251-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/jrf.0.1130251
Wojcik-Gladysz, A., Romanowicz, K., Misztal, T., Polkowska, J. and Barcikowski, B. (2005) Effects of Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Genistein on the Secretory Activity of the GnRH/LH Axis in Ovariectomized Ewes. Animal Reproduction Science, 86, 221-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.08.004
Norrby, M., Madsen, M., Saravia, F., Lundeheim, N. and Madej, A. (2011) Genistein Alters the Release of Oxytocin, Prostaglandins, Cortisol and LH during Insemination in Gilts. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 46, 316-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2010.01669.x
Caraty, A., Locatelli, A. and Martin, G.B. (1989) Biphasic Response in the Secretion of Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone in Ovariectomized Ewes Injected with Oestradiol. Journal of Endocrinology, 123, 375-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1230375
Polkowska, J., Ridderstrale, Y., Wankowska, M., Romanowicz, K., Misztal, T. and Madej, A. (2004) Effects of Intra-cerebroventricular Infusion of Genistein on Gonadotrophin Subunit mRNA and Immunoreactivity of Gonadotrophins and Oestrogen Receptor-Alpha in the Pituitary Cells of the Anoestrous Ewe. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 28, 217-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2004.07.004
Lents, C.A., Heidorn, N.L., Barb, C.R. and Ford, J.J. (2008) Central and Peripheral Administration of Kisspeptin Activates Gonadotropin but Not Somatotropin Secretion in Prepubertal Gilts. Reproduction, 135, 879-887. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-07-0502
Estrada, K.M., Clay, C.M., Pompolo, S., Smith, J.T. and Clarke, I.J. (2006) Elevated KiSS-1 Expression in the Arcuate Nucleus Prior to the Cyclic Preovulatory Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone/Lutenising Hormone Surge in the Ewe Suggests a Stimulatory Role for Kisspeptin in Oestrogen-Positive Feedback. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 18, 806-809. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2826.2006.01485.x
Adachi, S., Yamada, S., Takatsu, Y., Matsui, H., Kinoshita, M., Takase, K., Sugiura, H., Ohtaki, T., Matsumoto, H., Uenoyama, Y., Tsukamura, H., Inoue, K. and Maeda, K. (2007) Involvement of Anteroventral Periventricular Metastin/Kisspeptin Neurons in Estrogen Positive Feedback Action on Luteinizing Hormone Release in Female Rats. Journal of Reproduction and Development, 53, 367-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1262/jrd.18146
Clarkson, J. and Herbison, A.E. (2006) Postnatal Development of Kisspeptin Neurons in Mouse Hypothalamus; Sexual Dimorphism and Projections to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons. Endocrinology, 147, 5817-5825. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2006-0787
Tomikawa, J., Homma, T., Tajima, S., Shibata, T., Inamoto, Y., Takase, K., Inoue, N., Ohkura, S., Uenoyama, Y., Maeda, K. and Tsukamura, H. (2010) Molecular Characterization and Estrogen Regulation of Hypothalamic KISS1 Gene in the Pig. Biology of Reproduction, 82, 313-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.079863