All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles

Red blood cell transfusion within the first 24 hours of admission is associated with increased mortality in the pediatric trauma population: a retrospective cohort study

Index Blood Tests and National Early Warning Scores within 24 Hours of Emergency Admission Can Predict the Risk of In-Hospital Mortality: A Model Development and Validation Study

Case mix, outcome and activity for patients with severe acute kidney injury during the first 24 hours after admission to an adult, general critical care unit: application of predictive models from a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database

Severe lactic acidosis reversed by thiamine within 24 hours

Can generic paediatric mortality scores calculated 4 hours after admission be used as inclusion criteria for clinical trials?

Assessment of risk factors related to healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection at patient admission to an intensive care unit in Japan

Evaluation and Comparison of Admission and Discharge Criteria in Admitted Patients’ of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Bahrami Children’s Hospital with the Criteria of American Academy of Pediatrics

Newly Admitted Psychiatric Inpatients after the 3.11 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan

Mortality Pattern within Twenty-Four Hours of Emergency Paediatric Admission in a Resource-Poor Nation Health Facility

Nurses and Physicians in a Medical Admission Unit Can Accurately Predict Mortality of Acutely Admitted Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study


Acute Stress Symptoms in Families of Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit during the First 24 Hours Following Admission in Japan

DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.54035, PP. 325-335

Keywords: Intensive Care Unit, Families, within 24 Hours, Acute Stress Symptoms, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Families of patients in the intensive care unit often experience sever stress. Understanding their experience is important for providing family-centered care during this difficult period. Little is known about the experience of families of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with acute stress symptoms among families of patients admitted to the ICU, we carried out a cross-sectional study at a teaching and advanced treatment hospital. The mean total Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score differed significantly between planned and unplanned ICU admissions (t = 4.03, p < 0.05), indicating a main effect of admission type (F = 18.5, p < 0.05). There was no significant main effect of relationship (F = 0.05, p = 0.82) or interaction effect of admission type and relationship (F = 0.54, p = 0.47). Multiple regression analysis indicated that admission type was significantly associated with acute stress symptoms (B = 18.09, β = 0.47, p < 0.01), and explained 22% of the variance in total IES-R score. Whether a patient had a planned or unplanned admission to the ICU influenced symptoms associated with acute stress symptoms of family members more than did getting support from nurses, being the patient’s spouse, or the severity of illness of the patient.


[1]  McAdam, J.L. and Puntillo, K. (2009) Symptoms Experienced by Family Members of Patients in Intensive Care Units. American Journal of Critical Care, 18, 200-209.
[2]  Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Minister’s Secretariat Statistics and Information Department (2005) Department of Demographics and Health Statistics, Health Statistics Room Medical Facility (Static and Dynamic) Survey, Hospital Fact Sheets 2005.
[3]  Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Minister’s Secretariat Statistics and Information Department (2011) Department of Demographics and Health Statistics, Health Statistics Room Medical Facility (Static and Dynamic) Survey, Hospital Fact Sheets.
[4]  Azoulay, E., Pochard, F., Chevret, S., Adrie, C., Annane, D., Bleichner, G., Bornstain, C., Bouffard, Y., Cohen, Y., Feissel, M., Goldgran-Toledano, D., Guitton, C., Hayon, J., Iglesias, E., Joly, L.M., Jourdain, M., Laplace, C., Lebert, C., Pingat, J., Poisson, C., Renault, A., Sanchez, O., Selcer, D., Timsit, J.F., Le Gall, J.R. and Schlemmer, B (2004) Half the Family Members of Intensive Care Unit Patients Do Not Want to Share in the Decision-Making Process: A Study in 78 French Intensive Care Units. Critical Care Medicine, 32, 1832-1838.
[5]  White, D.B., Engelberg, R.A., Wenrich, M.D., Lo, B. and Curtis, J.R. (2007) Prognostication during Physician-Family Discussions about Limiting Life Support in Intensive Care Units. Critical Care Medicine, 35, 442-448.
[6]  Pochard, F., Darmon, M., Fassier, T., Bollaert, P.E., Cheval, C., Coloigner, M., Merouani, A., Moulront, S., Pigne, E., Pingat, J., Zahar, J.R., Schlemmer, B. and Azoulay, E., French FAMIREA Study Group (2005) Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Family Members of Intensive Care Unit Patients before Discharge or Death. A Prospective Multicenter Study. Journal of Critical Care, 20, 90-96.
[7]  Harvey, A.G. and Bryant, R.A. (1999) Dissociative Symptoms in Acute Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 673-680.
[8]  Koopman, C., Classen, C., Cardena, E. and Spiegel, D. (1995) When Disaster Strikes. Acute Stress Disorder May Follow. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 29-46.
[9]  Fumls, R.R.L., Ranzani, O.T., Martins, P.S. and Schettino, G. (2015) Emotional Disorders in Pairs of Patients and Their Family Members during and after ICU Stay. PLOS ONE, 10, Article ID: e0115332.
[10]  Sundararajan, K., Martin, M., Rajagopala, S. and Chapman, M.J. (2014) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Close Relatives of Intensive Care Unit Patients’ Evaluation (PRICE) Study. Australian Critical Care, 27, 183-187.
[11]  McAdam, J.L., Fontaine, D.K., White, D.B., Dracup, K.A. and Puntillo, K.A. (2012) Psychological Symptoms of Family Members of High-Risk Intensive Care Unit Patients. American Journal of Critical Care, 21, 386-394.
[12]  Gries, C.J., Engelberg, R.A., Kross, E.K., Zatzick, D., Nielsen, E.L., Downey, L. and Curtis, J.R. (2010) Predictors of Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in Family Members after Patient Death in the ICU. Chest, 137, 280-287.
[13]  Chui, W.Y.Y. and Chan, S.W. (2007) Stress and Coping of Hong Kong Chinese Family Members during a Critical Illness. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 372-381.
[14]  Leske, J.S. (1992) The Impact of Critical Injury as Described by a Spouse: A Retrospective Care Study. Clinical Nursing Research, 1, 385-401.
[15]  Miyamoto, C. and Hirose, Y. (2006) Feelings of Mothers with Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: In the Case of Mothers Who Cared Their Children at Home before Surgery [in Japanese]. Journal of Japanese Society of Child Health Nursing, 15, 9-16.
[16]  Fujimoto, R., Kuga, C., Koga, Y., Yamazaki, N., Yamashita, M., Tachino, J. and Yamase, H. (2010) Experience in Families of ICU Admitted Patients Who Have Cardiac Surgery [in Japanese]. Japan Journal of Nursing: Adult Health Nursing I, 40, 47-49.
[17]  Salgado, C.L., Lamy, Z.C., de Abreu Haickel Nina, R.V., de Melo, L.A. and da Silva Nina, V.J. (2011) Pediatric Cardiac Surgery under the Parents Sight: A Qualitative Study. Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, 26, 36-42.
[18]  Breiwn, C.R., Anddrews, B. and Valentine, J.D. (2000) Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 748-766.
[19]  Van Horn, E. and Tesh, A. (2000) The Effect of Critical Care Hospitalization on Family Members: Stress and Response. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 19, 40-49.
[20]  Ozer, E.J., Best, S.R., Lipsey, T.L. and Weiss, D.S. (2003) Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Symptoms in Adults: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 52-73.
[21]  Mitchell, M.L. and Courtney, M. (2004) Reducing Family Members’ Anxiety and Uncertainty in Illness around Transfer from Intensive Care: An Intervention Study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 20, 223-231.
[22]  Lautrette, A., Darmon, M., Megarbane, B., Joly, L.M., Chevret, S., Adrie, C., Barnoud, D., Bleichner, G., Bruel, C., Choukroun, G., Curtis, J.R., Fieux, F., Galliot, R., Garrouste-Orgeas, M., Georges, H., Goldgran-Toledano, D., Jourdain, M., Loubert, G., Reignier, J., Saidi, F., Souweine, B., Vincent, F., Barnes, N.K., Pochard, F., Schlemmer, B. and Azoulay, E. (2007) A Communication Strategy and Brochure for Relatives of Patients Dying in the ICU. New England Journal of Medicine, 356, 469-478.
[23]  Paparrigopoulos, T., Melissaki, A., Efthymiou, A., Tsekou, H., Vadala, C., Kribeni, G., Pavlou, E. and Soldatos, C. (2006) Short-Term Psychological Impact on Family Members of Intensive Care Unit Patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 719-722.
[24]  Asukai, N., Hirohata, S., Kato, H. and Konishi, T. (2003) Psychometric Properties of the Japanese-Language Version of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV [in Japanese with English Abstract]. Japanese Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 47-53.
[25]  Knaus, W.A., Draper, E.A., Wagner, D.P. and Zimmerman, J.E. (1985) APACHE II: A Severity of Disease Classification System. Critical Care Medicine, 13, 818-829.
[26]  Asukai, N., Kato, H., Kawamura, N., Kim, Y., Yamamoto, K., Kishimoto, J., Miyake, Y. and Nishizono-Maher, A. (2002) Reliability and Validity of the Japanese-Language Version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-J): Four Studies of Different Traumatic Events. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 190, 175-182.
[27]  Weiss, D.S. (2004) The Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In: Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD, 2nd Edition, The Guilford Press, New York, 168-189.
[28]  American Psychiatric Association (2003) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Edition, Text Revision, American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC.
[29]  Sarason, I.G., Levine, H.M., Basham, R.B. and Sarason, B.R. (1983) Assessing Social Support: The Social Support Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 127-139.
[30]  Furukawa, T.A., Harai, H., Hirai, T., Kitamura, T. and Takahashi, K. (1999) Social Support Questionnaire among Psychiatric Patients with Various Diagnoses and Normal Controls. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 34, 216-222.
[31]  Armitage, P., Berry, G. and Matthew, J.N.S. (2002) Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 4th Edition, Blackwell, Oxford.
[32]  Balluffi, A., Kassam-Adams, N., Kazak, A., Tucker, M., Dominguez, T. and Helfaer, M. (2004) Traumatic Stress in Parents of Children Admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 5, 547-553.
[33]  Halm, M.A., Titler, M.G., Kleiber, C., Johnson, S.K., Montgomery, L.A., Craff, M.J., Buckwalter, K., Nicholson, A. and Megivern, K. (1993) Behavioral Responses of Family Members during Critical Illness. Clinical Nursing Research, 2, 414-437.
[34]  Cobb, S. (1976) Social Support as a Moderator of Life Stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38, 300-314.
[35]  Munakata, T. (1995) The Stress Release [in Japanese]. Shogakukan Library, Tokyo.
[36]  Nakai, A., Fakazawa, M., Nagawa, M. and Kohata, F. (2011) Study of How Social Resources Are Used by Mothers of Physically Disabled Children [in Japanese]. Journal of Child Health, 70, 676-682.
[37]  American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th Edition, Text Revision, American Psychiatric Association, Arlington.


comments powered by Disqus