All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Open Mass Cultures of Marine Microalgae for Biodiesel Production: Laboratory Approach to Study Species Competition in Mixed Cultures

DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.63016, PP. 174-180

Keywords: Biodiesel, Marine Microalgae, Interspecific Competition, Multispecies Algal Assay, Oil-Yield

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Since the interspecific competition represents a critical issue for biodiesel production in open mass cultures of microalgae, laboratory studies aimed to select competitive species receive significant interest. In this work, a laboratory approach based on the method of multisizing cell counting was developed to monitor the competition course of single algal species grown in mixed cultures. Two marine microalgae, Dunaliella tertiolecta and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were used to set-up an induced-contamination assay, with the aim to test their competitive capabilities. The evaluation of the oil production by dried biomass extraction was coupled to the growth assay to investigate the effect of competition on oil yield. The adopted experimental approach revealed effective as a method to selectively measure the algal growth of single species in mixed cultures, enabling to evaluate the competitive properties of Dunaliella outgrowing the contaminant species Phaeodactylum. At the end of the experiment the dominant species contributed more than 90% to the total biomass, while no loss of oil production was observed, the oil yield in the mixed being even higher than in the unialgal culture (3.15 vs. 2.28 mg). The outcomes of the induced competition suggest the use of Dunaliella as a competitive oil-producer species and especially support the potential of the experimental approach to be used for preliminary screening to drive species selection for open mass cultures.

References

[1]  Demirbas, A. and Demirbas, M.F. (2011) Importance of Algae Oil as Source of Biodiesel. Energy Conversion Management, 52, 163-170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.06.055
[2]  Chisti, Y. (2013) Constraints to Commercialization of Algal Fuels. Journal of Biotechnology, 167, 201-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2013.07.020
[3]  Chisti, Y. (2007) Biodiesel from Microalgae. Biotechnology Advances, 25, 294-306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2007.02.001
[4]  Schenk, P.M., Thomas-Hall, S.R., Stephens, E., Marx, U.C., Mussgnug, J.H., Posten, C., Kruse, O. and Hankamer, B. (2008) Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production. Bioenergy Resource, 1, 20-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12155-008-9008-8
[5]  Yang, J., Xu, M., Zhang, Z., Hu, Q., Sommerfeld, M. and Chen, Y. (2011) Lyfe Cycle Analysis on Biodiesel Production from Microalgae: Water Footprint and Nutrients Balance. Bioresource Technology, 102, 159-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.017
[6]  Vasudevan, P.T. and Briggs, M. (2008) Biodiesel Production—Current State of the Art and Challenges. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 35, 421-430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-008-0312-2
[7]  Stephens, E., Ross, I.L., Mussgnug, J.H., Wagner, L.D., Borowitzka, M.A., Posten, C., Kruse, O. and Hankamer, B. (2010) Future Prospects of Microalgal Biofuel Production Systems. Trends in Plant Science, 15, 554-564.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2010.06.003
[8]  Sheehan, J., Dunahay, T., Benemann, J. and Roessler, P. (1998) A Look Back at the US Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae. Close-Out Report. NREL/TP-580-24190, NREL, DOE, Golden.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/15003040
[9]  Mingazzini, M., Palumbo, M.T. and Pagnotta, R. (2008) Oil-Production by Microalgae: An Interspecific Comparison. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Green Chemistry, Munich, 13-16 October 2008, 85-87.
[10]  Wang, H., Zhang, W., Chen, L., Wang, J. and Liu, T. (2013) The Contamination and Control of Biological Pollutants in Mass Cultivation of Microalgae. Bioresource Technology, 128, 745-750.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.158
[11]  Stockenreiter, M., Graber, A.K., Haupt, F. and Stibor, H. (2012) The Effect of Species Diversity on Lipid Production by Micro-Algal Communities. Journal of Applied Phycology, 24, 45-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10811-010-9644-1
[12]  EPA (1974) Marine Algal Assay Procedure: Bottle Test. US Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis.
[13]  Mingazzini, M. and Palumbo, M.T. (2008) Proposal of Test Species Useful to Evaluate the Algal Growth Potential (AGP) in Estuarine Mixing Area. Biologia Marina Mediterranea, 15, 390-391.
[14]  Hosseini Tafreshi, A. and Shariati, M. (2009) Dunaliella Biotechnology: Methods and Applications. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 107, 14-35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04153.x
[15]  Minowa, T., Yokoyama, S., Kishimoto, M. and Okakura, T. (1995) Oil Production from Algal Cells of Dunaliella tertiolecta by Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction. Fuel, 74, 1735-1738.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)80001-X
[16]  Takagi, M., Karseno and Toshiomi, Y. (2006) Effect of Salt Concentration on Intracellular Accumulation of Lipids and Triacylglyceride in Marine Microalgae Dunaliella Cells. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 101, 223-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1263/jbb.101.223
[17]  Goldman, J.C., Riley, C.B. and Dennett, M.R. (1982) The Effect of pH in Intensive Microalgal Cultures: Species Competition. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 57, 15-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(82)90141-1
[18]  Smedes, F. (1999) Determination of Total Lipid Using Non-Chlorinated Solvents. The Analyst, 124, 1711-1718.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/a905904k
[19]  Smith, V.H. and Crews, T. (2014) Applying Ecological Principles of Crop Cultivation in Large-Scale Algal Biomass Production. Algal Research, 4, 23-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2013.11.005

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus