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Qualitative Analysis of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Fungi in Cowshed

DOI: 10.1155/2014/985921

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Abstract:

Air pollution is one of the most serious problems to human health. Fungi are the causal agents for different diseases in animals, plants, and human beings. Otomycosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, allergy, and systemic mycosis are among the fungal diseases caused. The present study was conducted to analyze the monthly incidence of airborne fungi, seasonal variation, and influence of meteorological parameters in indoor and outdoor fungi of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village, Bangalore. An aeromycological survey of indoor and outdoor area of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village in Bangalore city was carried out using the Andersen two-stage sampler onto a petri dish containing malt extract agar from January 2011 to December 2011. Altogether, 29 species belonging to 13 genera from indoor and 26 species belonging to 12 genera were recorded from outdoor environment of the cowshed; the dominant fungal species identified were Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Alternaria alternata. Seasonal occurrence of fungal spores in both indoor and outdoor of the cowshed revealed that maximum spores were recorded in summer season followed by winter and rainy season. 1. Introduction Airborne particles are present throughout the environment. Despite the fact that atmospheric air does not favour growth of microorganisms due to lack of nutrients, the microorganisms are present in aerosol form, suspended in the air. The basic sources of microbes are soil, water, animals, and humans and they originate in many different forms and affect visibility, climate, human health, and the quality of life [1]. Airborne microbial quantity and quality vary with time of day, year, and location [2]. Fungi are common in indoor and outdoor environment. Nearly 10% of people worldwide have fungal allergy [3]. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to fungi may be associated with acute toxic effects, allergies, and asthma [4]. Researchers believe that more than 80 genera of fungi are associated with symptoms of respiratory tract allergies [5]. Over 100 species of fungi are involved with serious human and animal infections, whereas many other species cause serious plant diseases [6]. Many fungal spores are involved in respiratory allergies and different kinds of infections [7]. Fungal aerosols produced in animal rearing houses may threaten caretakers and external environment. Respiratory infection or damage may occur in caretakers as well as in animal rearing houses with prolonged exposure to the environment at high microorganism levels [8]. Microbial aerosols of high levels are also

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