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Biodegradation and Sugar Release from Canola Plant Biomass by Selected White Rot Fungi

DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.46045, PP. 395-406

Keywords: Canola Plant Biomass, Bio-Delignification, White Rot Fungi, Lignocellulose

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Abstract:

Canola crop is rich in plant biomass. It is considered a major cash crop in North America and a potential source for biofuel. We evaluated six strains of white rot basidiomycetes under solid state fermentation (SSF) for their potentials to secrete oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes to biodegrade canola plant biomass (CPB), and release sugars. Fuscoporia gilva and Pleurotus tuberregium produced high amount of laccase (440.86 U/L and 480.63 U/L at day 7), as well as carboxylmethylcellulase (CMCase) (4.78 U/mL at day 21 and 3.13 U/mL at day 14) and xylanase (4.48 U/mL and 7.8 U/mL at day 21), respectively. Bjerkandera adusta showed high amount of MnP (50.4 U/L) and peroxidase (64.5 U/L), relative to the other strains. Loss of organic matter peaked after 21 days of incubation in all the tested strains; however, the best result (34.0%) was shown in P. tuberregium. The highest lignin loss was observed in Coriolopsis caperata strains. Among the sugar polymers, hemicellulose was highly degraded by P. tuberregium and P. pulmonarius (4.1% - 4.6%), while cellulose (3.3% - 4.3%) was mainly degraded by F. gilva and B. adusta. Glucose was the dominant sugar released by all the fungi tested, with the highest concentration of 1.25 mg/mL produced by B. adusta at day 14 of incubation. Results indicate that selected white rot fungi can achieve significant delignification of CPB within 14 days of solid state fermentation. Their importance in low cost pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass prior to conversion into biofuels and bio-products of economic importance is discussed.

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