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Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

DOI: 10.1155/2012/163860

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Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies. 1. Introduction Canine distemper is an infectious disease caused by a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family, infecting a broad range of terrestric and aquatic carnivores. Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped virion which contains a nonsegmented single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome that encodes six structural (nucleocapsid N, matrix M, fusion F, hemagglutinin H, phospho-P and large-L proteins) and two nonstructural (C and V proteins) proteins [1]. CDV has been reported in dogs, ferrets, wild dogs, foxes, jackals, coyotes, hyenas [2], lions, tigers, leopards, cheetahs [3], seals, sea lions, and dolphins [4]. The domestic dog is the most suffered species, and, although the disease has been also found in big cats, CDV has not been detected in domestic cats. However, experimental infection with SPF cats revealed that this species can sustain CDV replication with pronounced lymphopenia, without displaying any clinical signs [5, 6]. The Morbillivirus genus includes other important highly infectious pathogens like measles (MV) and rinderpest viruses (RPV), and almost all members present equivalent tropism and tissue distribution in their respective hosts. Morbilliviruses are transmitted by aerosols and produce clinical similarities, such as fever, serous nasal discharge, and cough, as well as respiratory and gastrointestinal signs often complicated by secondary bacterial infections. Furthermore, the most notorious property of morbillivirus infection is the establishing of severe transitory

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