b gene of North Sulawesi Tarsius sp., T. tumpara, T. sangirensis and T. tarsier (T. spectrum) had been
partially sequenced. The homologous sequence of three groups had been compared
to describe the phylogenetic position among them, as well as several other
species accessed from the Genbank. Total DNA extracted from the muscular tissue
had been obtained through tail cut sampling using the innuPREP DNA micro kit,
and amplified using a pair of universal primer, L14841 and H15149. The size of
the cyt b gene sequence amplified was 307 bp long. Sequence aligned using
CLUSTAL-X program and diversity analysis were done using version 5.2.2. MEGA5
program. Genetic distance had been calculated by Tamura 3 parameter method and
phylogenetic tree had been built using Neighbor-Joining and Maximum Likelihood
methods. Genetic distance based on cyt b gene nucleotide was found from 0 to 0.240
with an average of 0.080. The phylogenetic tree constructed by Neighbor
Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods indicated that T. tarsier,
Hall, R. (2001) Cenezoic Recostructions of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: Changing Patterns of Land and Sea. In: Metcale, I., Smith, J.M.B., Morwood, M. and Davidson, I.D., Eds., Faunal and Floral migration in SE Asia-Australia, A. A. Balkema (Swets and Zietlinger Publishers), Lisse, 35-36.
Brandon-Jones, D., Eudey, A.A., Geissmann, T., Groves, C.P., Melnick, D.J., Morales, J.C., Shekelle, M. and Stewart, C.B. (2004) Asian Primate Classification. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 97-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000014647.18720.32
Shekelle, M., Meier, R., Wahyu, I., Wirdateti and Ting, N. (2010) Molecular Phylogenetics and Chronometrics of Tarsiidae Based on 12S mtDNA Haplotypes: Evidence for Miocene Origins of Crown Tarsiers and Numerous Species within the Sulawesian Clade. International Journal of Primatology, 31, 1083-1106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9457-8
Avise, J.C., Lansman, R.A. and Shade, R.O. (1979) Use Endonuclease to Measure Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Relatedness in Natural Population. I. Population Structure and Evolution in Genus Peromyscus. Genetics, 92, 279-295.
Brown, W.M., Prager, E.M., Wang, A. and Wilson, A.C. (1982) Mitochondrial DNA Sequences of Primates: Tempo and Mode of Evolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 18, 225-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01734101
Master, J.C., Boniotto, M., Crovella, S., Roos, C., Pozzi, L. and Delpero, M. (2007) Phylogenetic Relationships among the Lorisoidea as Indicates by Craniodental Morphology and Mitochondrial Sequence Data. American Journal of Primatology, 69, 6-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20322
Roos, C., Nadler, T. and Walter, L. (2008) Mitochondrial Phylogeny, Taxonomy and Biogeography of Silver Langur Spesies Group (Trachypithecus cristatus). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47, 629-636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.03.006
Lim, L.S., Ang, K.C., Mahani, M.C., Shahrom, A.W. and Md-Zain, B.M. (2010) Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism and Phylogenetic Relationships of Proto Malays in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Biological Sciences, 10, 71-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2010.71.83
Karanth, K.P., Lalji, S., Collura, R.V. and Beth, S.C. (2008) Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of Langurs and Leaf Monkey of South Asia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46, 683-694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2007.11.026
Schmitz, J., Ohme, M. and Zischler, H. (2002) The Complete Mitochondrial Sequence of Tarsius bancanus: Evidence for an Extensive Nucleotide Compositional Plasticity of Primate Mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19, 544-553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004110
Merker, S., Driller, C., Dahruddin, H., Wirdateti, Sinaga, W., Farajallah, D.P. and Shekelle, M. (2010) Tarsius wallacei: A New Tarsier Species from Central Sulawesi Occupies a Discontinuous Range. International Journal of Primatology, 31, 1107-1122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9452-0
Driller, C., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Zischler, H. and Merker, S. (2009) The Social System of Lariang Tarsiers (Tarsius lariang) as Revealed by Genetic Analysis. International Journal of Primatology, 30, 267-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-009-9341-6
Merker, S., Driller, C., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Pamungkas, J. and Zischler, H. (2009) Elucidating Geological and Biological Processes Underlying the Diversification of Sulawesi Tarsiers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 8459-8464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0900319106
Farias, I.P., Orti, G., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H. and Meyer, A. (2001) The Cytochrome b Gene as a Phylogenetic Marker: The Limits of Resolution for Analyzing Relationships among Cichlid Fishes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 53, 89-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002390010197 PMid:11479680
Md-Zain, B.M., Lee, S.J., Lakim, M., Ampeng, A. and Mahani, M.C. (2010) Phylogenetic Position of Tarsius Bancanus Based on Partial Cytochrome b DNA Sequences. Journal of Biological Science, 10, 348-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2010.348.354
Kocher, T.D., Thomas, W.K., Meyer, A., Edwards, S.V., Paabo, S., Villablanca, F.X. and Wilson, A.C. (1989) Dynamics of Mitokondrial DNA Evolution in Animals: Amplification and Sequencing with Conserved Primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 6196-6200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.86.16.6196
Shekelle, M., Groves, C., Merker, S. and Supriatna, J. (2008) Tarsius tumpara: A New Tarsier Spesies from Siau Island, North Sulawesi. Primata Conservation, 23, 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1896/052.023.0106
Shekelle, M. (2008) Distribution of Tarsiers Acoustic Forms, North and Central Sulawesi: With Notes on The Primary Taxonomy of Sulawesi’s Tarsiers. Primates of The Oriental Night, CBCS-UI, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, University of Indonesia, Depok, 35-50.
Burton, J.A. and Nietsch, A. (2010) Geographical Variation in Duet Songs of Sulawesi Tarsiers: Evidence for New Cryptic Species in South and Southeast Sulawesi. International Journal of Primatology, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010.