Global efforts in
mitigating climate change are increasingly important as more evidence of
climate change impact is apparent. Reducing carbon emissions under the United
Nations’ reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation,
conservation of carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and
enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have multiple implications for
climate change mitigation and sustainable development. However, implementing
REDD+ project requires understanding of the magnitude of emissions in the
absence of project activities (baseline) and vice versa (projectline). This
study attempted to estimate carbon emission reductions by reducing
deforestation in dry mixed deciduous forests in Popa Mountain Park in Myanmar.
Baseline deforestation was determined using the 1989-2005 forest cover data,
while carbon stocks were derived from forest inventory data. Our results show
that about 25% to 63% of forest area in the study site will be lost between
2013 and 2043 if no REDD+ project is implemented. Our study results suggest
that managing4220 haof dry mixed deciduous forest in Popa Mountain Park could
reduce emissions of about 104023.8 - 241991.0 tCO2over a 30-year project cycle or about
3467 - 8066 tCO2annually
depending on deforestation rates. In terms of carbon revenues, the project
would generate about US $349503.3 - $846968.6 per 30 years or US $11650.1 -
$28232.3 annually depending on the assumption of carbon price. It is therefore
important that carbon financing be made available to protect the forests in the
Popa Mountain Park as well as other parts in Myanmar.
Sathaya, J.A. and Anger, N. (2008) Reducing Deforestation and Trading Emissions: Economic Implications for the Post-Kyoto Carbon Market. ZEW Discussion Papers, No. 08-016. Centre of European Economic Research (ZEW), Manhein.
The United Nation Collaborative Programe on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD) (2008) UN Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD), Framework Document, Geneva.
Pelletier, J., Kirby, K.R. and Potvin, C. (2012) Significance of Carbon Stock Uncertainties on Emission Reductions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. Forest Policy and Economics, 24, 3-11.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) Summary for Policymakers. In: Metz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R. and Meyer, L.A., Eds., Climate Change 2007; Mitigation Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
United Nations Framework Convension on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2009) Draft decision 4/CP. 15. Methodological Guidance for Activities Relating to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and the Role of Conservation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Enhancement of Forest Carbon Stocks in Developing Countries. New York City.
Boscolo, M., Kerr, S., Pfaff, A. and Sanchez, A. (1999) What Role for Tropical Forests in Climate Change Mitigation? The Case of Costa Rica. In Issue 675 of Development Discussion Paper, Central America Project Series, Harvard Institute for International Development, Harvard University.
Myo, M.T. (2008) Carbon Storage Capacity in Teak Plantation and Degraded Forest Potential for AC-CDM Projects. (A Case Study in Yedashe Township, in the Eastern Part of the Bago Yoma.) University of Forestry, Myanmar.
Htun, N.Z., Mizoue, N. and Yoshida, S. (2011) Classifying Tropical Deciduous Vegetation?: A Comparison of Multiple Approaches in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32, 8935-8948.
Htun, N.Z., Mizoue, N. and Yoshida, S. (2013) Changes in Determinants of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar. Environmental Management, 51, 423-434.
Rao, M., Rabinowitz, A. and Khaing, S.T. (2002) Status Review of the Protected-Area System in Myanmar, with Recommendations for Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology, 16, 360-368.
Htun, N.Z., Mizoue, N., Kajisa, T. and Yoshida, S. (2010) Deforestation and Forest Degradation as Measures of Popa Mountain Park (Myanmar) Effectiveness. Environmental Conservation, 36, 218-224.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Landuse. Vol 4, IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).
Chave, J., Muller-Landau, H.C., Baker, T.R., Easdale, T.A., Steege, H. and Webb, C.O. (2006) Regional and Phylogenetic Variation of Wood Density across 2456 Neotropical Tree Species. Ecological Applications, 16, 2356-2367.
Bryan, J., Shearman, P., Ash, J. and Kirkpatrick, J.B. (2010) Estimating Rainforest Biomass Stocks and Carbon Loss from Deforestation and Degradation in Papua New Guinea 1972-2002: Best Estimates, Uncertainties and Research Needs. Journal of Environmental Management, 91, 995-1001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.12.006
Mattsson, E., Persson, U.M., Ostwald, M. and Nissanka, S.P. (2012) REDD+ Readiness Implications for Sri Lanka in Terms of Reducing Deforestation. Journal of Environmental Management, 100, 29-40.
Kenzo, T., Furutani, R., Hattori, D., Kendawang, J.J., Tanaka, S., Sakurai, K. and Ninomiya, I. (2009) Allometric Equations for Accurate Estimation of Above-Ground Biomass in Logged-Over Tropical Rainforests in Sarawak, Malaysia.
Journal of Forest Research, 14, 365-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10310-009-0149-1
Coomes, D., Allen, R.B., Scott, N., Goulding, C. and Beets, P. (2002) Designing Systems to Monitor Carbon Stocks in Forests and Shrublands.Forest Ecology and Management, 164, 89-108.
Sasaki, N. and Yoshimoto, A. (2010) Benefits of Tropical Forest Management under the New Climate Change Agreement—A Case Study in Cambodia. Environmental Science & Policy, 13, 384-392.
Busch, J., Strassburg, B., Cattaneo, A., Lubowski, R., Bruner, A., Rice, R., Creed, A., Ashton, R. and Boltz, F. (2009) Comparing Climate and Cost Impacts of Reference Levels for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation. Environmental Research Letters, 4, Article ID: 044006.
Guyana and Norway (2009) Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana and the Government of the Kingdom of Norway Regarding Cooperation on Issues Related to the Fight against Climate Change, the Protection of Biodiversity and the Enhanc.
Con, T.V., Thang, N.T., Ha, D.T.T., Khiem, C.C., Quy, T.H., Lam, V.T., Van, D.T. and Sato, T. (2013) Relationship between Aboveground Biomass and Measures of Structure and Species Diversity in Tropical Forests of Vietnam. Forest Ecology and Management, 310, 213-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.034
Sharma, C.M., Baduni, N.P., Gairola, S., Ghildiyal, S.K. and Suyal, S. (2010) Tree Diversity and Carbon Stocks of Some Major Forest Types of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Forest Ecology and Management, 260, 2170-2179.
Lasco, R.D., Pulhin, F.B., Sanchez, P.A.J., Villamor, G.B. and Villegas, K.A.L. (2008) Climate Change and Forest Ecosystems in the Philippines: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Mitigation. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 11, 1-14.
Woo, S.Y., Han, S.H. and Lee, D.K. (2010) Carbon Storage and Flux in Aboveground Vegetation and Soil of Sixty-Year Old Secondary Natural Forest and Large Leafed Mahogany (Swieteniamacrophylla King) Plantation in Mt. Makiling, Phillippines. Asia Life Sciences, 19, 357-372.
Zheng, H., Ouyang, Z., Xu, W., Wang, X., Miao, H., Li, X. and Tian Y. (2007) Variation of Carbon Storage by Different Reforestation Types in the Hilly Red Soil Region of Southern China. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 1113-1121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.015
Kinderman, G.E., Obersteiner, M., Rametsteiner, E. and McCallum, I. (2006) Predicting the Deforestation-Trend under Different Carbon-Prices. Carbon Balance and Management, 1, 15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-0680-1-15
Agrawal, A., Nepstad, D. and Chhatre, A. (2011) Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 36, 373-396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-042009-094508