全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要


Evidence of the Presence of Genetically Modified Foods in the Sudano-Sahelian Zones of Cameroon

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.510102, PP. 922-928

Keywords: Food, GMO, Safety, Labelling, North Cameroun

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:


Concerns of Africans with transgenic foods and genetically modified organisms seem to have minor repercussions in general on the use and the commercialisation of these products on African markets and particularly in the northern sudano-sahelian zone of Cameroun. In this line, different crops (cotton, and maize) and some commercialized branded food products were sampled on local farms, markets and chops. Evaluation of the presence or absence of GMO was performed using labelling system, completed by the laboratory analysis using PCR methods combined with the electrophoresis. Amongst all collected items, sampled cotton of varieties IRMA L484, IRMA L457 and maize varieties ATP SRY (CHC 202), ECKEBIL (CLH 103), PAN 4P-767BR, PAN 5Q-433B and PAN 6Q-445B, were found to contain the foreign genetic material. Amongst processed commercialised brand products, 39 were found to contain genetically modified ingredients. Most were maize (glucose and syrup) and soya (lecithin).


References

[1]  Cooke, J.G. and Downie, R. (2010) African Perspectives on Genetically Modified Crops Assessing the Debate in Zambia, Kenya, and South Africa, A Report of the Center for Strategic and Inter-National Studies (CSIS) Global Food Security Project, 30 p.
[2]  Klintman, M. (2002) The Genetically Modified (GM) Food Labelling Controversy Ideological and Epistemic Crossovers. Social Studies of Science, 32, 71-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312702032001004
[3]  Coleman, I., (2012) Genetically Modified Crops and Africa’s Agricultural Potential Posted in Economic Development, Sub-Saharan Africa, Technology and Development, Women and Development Share.
[4]  Azadi, H. and Ho, P. (2010) Genetically modified and organic crops in developing countries: A review of options for food security. BiotechnologyAdvances, 28, 160-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2009.11.003
[5]  Bakshi, A. (2003) Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B: Critical Reviews, 6, 211-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10937400306469
[6]  Qureshi, A.H. (1996) The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the WTO—Co-Existence or Incoherence? Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, 7, 12-15.
[7]  Caswell, J. (2000) An Evaluation of Risk Analysis as Applied to Agricultural Biotechnology (with a Case Study of GMO Labeling). Agribusiness, 16, 115-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6297(200024)16:1<115::AID-AGR9>3.0.CO;2-M
[8]  Herrick, C.B. (2005) Cultures of GM’: Discourses of Risk and Labelling of GMOs in the UK and EU. Area, 37, 286294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2005.00632.x
[9]  Ahmed, F.E. (2002) Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods. TRENDS in Biotechnology, 20, 215-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(01)01920-5
[10]  Meyer, R. (1999) Development and Application of DNA Analytical Methods for the Detection of GMOs in Food. Food Control, 10, 391-399.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(99)00081-X
[11]  Gachet, E., Martin, G. G., Vigneau, F. and Meyer, G. (1998) Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) by PCR: A Brief Review of Methodologies Available. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 9, 380-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(99)00002-3
[12]  Hubner, P., Waiblinger, H.U., Pietsch, K. and Brodmann, P. (2001) Validation of PCR Methods for Quantitation of Genetically Modified Plants in Food. Journal of AOAC International, 84, 1855-1864.
[13]  Fombad, C.M. (2013) Some Reflections on the Prospects for the Harmonization of International Business Laws in Africa: OHADA and Beyond. Africa Today, 59, 50-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/africatoday.59.3.51
[14]  Shepherd, A.W. and Farolfi, S. (1999) Export Crop Liberalization in Africa: A Review (No. 135). Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
[15]  Dimaranan, B.V. and Mcdougall, R.A. (2006) Guide to the GTAP Data Base. In: Dimaranan, ed., Global Trade, Assistance, and Production: The GTAP6 Data Base, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 245 Pages.
[16]  Arvanitoyannis, I.S., Choreftaki, S. and Tserkezou, P. (2005) An Update of EU Legislation (Directives and Regulations) on Food-Related Issues (Safety, Hygiene, Packaging, Technology, GMOs, Additives, Radiation, Labelling): Presentation and Comments. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 40, 1021-1112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01113.x
[17]  Kenne, T. (2010) Les Biotechnologies en Afrique centrale: le cas du Cameroun, lecodonitiateur Tags: Pub congo nature article travail cadre afriquepaysage texte.
http://lecodonitiateur.centerblog.net/15-les-biotechnologie-en-afrique-centrale-le-cas-du-cameroun
[18]  Racovita, M., Obonyo, D.N., Abdallah, R., Anguzu, R., Bamwenda, G., Kiggundu, A. and Craig, W. (2013) Experiences in Sub-Saharan Africa with GM Crop Risk Communication: Outcome of a Workshop. GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain, 4, 19-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/gmcr.22488
[19]  Rivera-Dominguez, M. and Tiznado-Hernandez, M.E. (2013) Utilization of Omics Technology to Analyze Transgenic Plants. In: Debmalya B., Vasudeo, Z. and Vasco, A., Eds., Omics: Applications in Biomedical, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 399-437.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus