An integrated modelling approach is developed to simulate ecological economics processes of mountainous watershed of Heihe river basin, northwest China. The objectives are 1) a hydrologic unit model HLM_HMU was developed; 2) the impacts of LUCC on the hydrological processes based on different scenarios were simulated respectively; and 3) the Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) curve of prohibition grazing is given. The hydrological results show that the observed and simulated data have a good fit, in which the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency, balance error, and explained variance are 0.69, -0.13, and 0.62, respectively; the model can simulate the majority of peaks well; the source code of Spatial Modelling Environment (SME) needs to be deeply understood to improve the algorithms of interpolation and conflux; the PES result shows that prohibition grazing will occur completely when the price of PES reached to 17.42 yuan, and the increased amount of ecosystem services is 2.13 × 108 m3.The main purpose of this paper is to build a better understanding of developing a meaningful integrated model in the study area to solve its ecological and economic problems.
Monfreda, C., Wackernagel, M. and Deumling, D. (2004) Establishing National Natural Capital Accounts Based on Detailed Ecological Footprint and Biological Capacity Assessments. Land Use Policy, 21, 231-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2003.10.009
Suarez, R.M., Lookingbill, T. and Wainger, L. (2012) Modelling Exurban Development near Washington, DC, USA: Comparison of a Pattern-Based Model and a Spatially Explicit Econometric Model. Landscape Ecology, 27, 1045-1061. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10980-012-9760-1
Woodwell, J. (1998) A Simulation Model to Illustrate Feedbacks among Resource Consumption Production and Factors of Production in Ecological Economic Systems. Ecological Modelling, 112, 227-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(98)00080-5
Costanza, R., Voinov, A., Boumans, R., Maxwell, T., Villa, F., Voinov, H. and Wainger, L. (2002) Integrated Ecological Economic Modelling of the Patuxent River Watershed, Maryland. Ecological Monographs, 72, 203-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(2002)072[0203:IEEMOT]2.0.CO;2
Wang, J., Fu, B.J., Yang, Q. and Chen, L.D. (2001) Soil Nutrients in Relation to Land Use and Landscape Position in the Semi-Arid Small Catchment on the Loess Plateau in China. Journal of Arid Environments, 48, 537-550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jare.2000.0763
Kang, E.S., Cheng G.D., Lan, Y.C. and Jin, H. (1999) A Model for Simulating the Response of Runoff from the Mountainous Watersheds of Inland River Basins in the Arid Area of Northwest China to Climatic Changes. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 42, 52-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02878853
Chen, R.S., Lv, S.H. and Kang, E.S. (2006) A Distributed Water-Heat Coupled (DWHC) Model for Mountainous Watershed of an Inland River Basin (I): Model Structure and Equations. Advances in Earth Science, 21, 806-818.
Kelly, J., Wendland, M.H. and Rosimeiry, P. (2010) Targeting and Implementing Payments for Ecosystem Services: Opportunities for Bundling Biodiversity Conservation with Carbon and Water Services in Madagascar. Ecological Economics, 69, 2093-2107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02626669609491557
Loumagne, C., Chkir, N. and Normand, M. (1996) Introduction of the Soil/Vegetation/Atmosphere Continuum in a Conceptual Rainfall/Runoff Model. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 41, 889-902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02626669609491557