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Determinant of Low Birth Weight Infants: A Matched Case Control Study

DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.43013, PP. 91-99

Keywords: Low Birth Weight, Maternal Factors, Matched Case Control

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Abstract:

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is a well-known factor associated with neonatal mortality and has contributed to a range of poor health outcomes. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine factors associated with LBW infants. Methods: A matched case control study was conducted in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Data of deliveries were obtained from Total Hospital Information System and medical records. All registered deliveries from January to June 2012 were used as sample populations. There were 180 pairs of cases and controls matched on babies’ gender. Fourteen variables were analyzed: maternal age, ethnicity, gravida, parity, gestational age, maternal booking weight, height and body mass index (BMI), history of low birth weight infants, birth interval, booking hemoglobin levels, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and mode of delivery. Results: Younger mother (t = 6.947, p < 0.001), lower booking BMI (t = 3.067, p = 0.002), prematurity (t = 12.324, p < 0.001), history of LBW infants (OR = 3.0, p = 0.001), LSCS (OR = 0.06, p = 0.001) and current hypertension (OR = 3.1, p = 0.008) were found significant in bivariate analysis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression identified younger maternal age (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.86 -4.51, p < 0.001), previous history of LBW infants (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.03 -13.58, p = 0.045), prematurity (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.79 -3.26, p < 0.001), and current hypertension (AOR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.06 -19.22, p = 0.041) as significant factors associated with LBW infants. Conclusion: Younger maternal age, history of LBW infants, prematurity and hypertension have been recognized as predictors of LBW infants. The importance of pre-pregnancy screening, early antenatal booking and proper identification of high risk-mother needs to be strengthened and enforced in effort to reduce incidence of LBW infants.

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