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Rice Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.56062, PP. 525-532

Keywords: Rice Consumption, NHANES, Adults, Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality

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Abstract:

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the association of rice consumption with nutrient intake and diet quality in a recent nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: NHANES data (2005-2010) were used to assess the association of rice consumption by adults (19+ yrs; N = 14,386) with nutrient intake and diet quality. 24-hour dietary intakes were used to calculate usual intake (UI) of rice consumption using the National Cancer Institute methodology. Rice consumption groups were <0.25, >0.25 to <0.5, >0.5 to <1.0, and >1.0 oz. eq. of UI of rice. Diet quality (using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005]) was calculated. Covariate adjusted least square means ± SE were determined and quartile trends across the rice consumption categories were examined. Results: Significant (p < 0.001) positive trends (β coefficient across rice consumption categories) were seen for sodium (118.99 mg), dietary fiber (0.57 g), folate (58.24 μg DFE), magnesium (11.83 mg), iron (0.97 mg) and potassium (29.45 mg). Significant negative trends (p < 0.0001) were seen for intakes of saturated fatty acids (-1.75 g), added sugars (-1.31 g); and calcium (-40.46 mg). HEI-2005 also showed a positive trend (p < 0.0001) with rice consumption (5.5 points). HEI-2005 component scores for total fruit (0.07), whole fruit (0.11), dark green/orange vegetables (0.25), total grains (0.10), meat/beans (0.24), and oils (0.15) were higher (p < 0.01) in rice consumers than non-consumers. HEI-2005 component scores for saturated fatty acids (0.63), solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol (1.22) were higher suggesting more favorable intake, but sodium (-0.24) was lower. Conclusion: Overall, consumption of rice should be encouraged to improve nutrient intake and diet quality. Nutrition education can provide ways to reduce sodium added to rice dishes.

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