Ochratoxin A (OTA) is among the most important mycotoxins, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). A total of 121 samples of dried fruits from the central zone of Iran were analyzed for OTA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The recovery percentages of OTA in spiked dried fruit samples at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 ng/g were found to be 84.9%, 89.3% and 90.4% as mean, respectively. OTA was found in 20.7% of the analyzed samples by average concentration of 6.7 ± 3.9 ng/g. The incidence rates of OTA contamination in dried fig, raising, apricots, and date samples were 10.4%, 44.7%, 6.7% and 10.0%, respectively. The concentrations of OTA in 7.9% of contaminated dried raising samples and 2.1% of dried fig samples were higher than maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (10 ng/g). This value reflects that the analyzed samples have a minimal contribution to toxicological risk. To our best knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of OTA by ELISA in dried fruit samples in Iran.
Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A. and Manderville, R.A. (2007) Ochratoxin A: an overview on toxicity and carcinogenicity in animals and humans. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 51, 61-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200600137
Medina, C., Mateo, R., López-Ocana, L., Valle-Algarra, F.M. and Jiménez, M. (2005) Study on Spanish grape mycobiota and ochratoxin A production by isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and other members of Aspergillus section Nigri. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 4696-4702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.8.4696-4702.2005
Perrone, G., Mulè, G., Susca, A., Battilani, P., Pietri, A. and Logrieco, A. (2006) Ochratoxin A production and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger strains isolated from grapes in Italy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 680-685. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.1.680-685.2006
Bellí, N., Ramos, A.J., Coronas, I., Sanchis, V. and Marín, S. (2005) Aspergillus carbonarius growth and ochratoxin A production on a synthetic grape medium in relation to environmental factors. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98, 839-844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02469.x
Pardo, E., Sanchis, V., Ramos, A.J. and Marin, S. (2006) Non-specificity of nutritional substrate for ochratoxin A production by isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus. Food Microbiology, 23, 351-358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2005.05.005
Goryacheva, I.Y., De Saeger, S., Lobeau, M., Eremin, S.A., Barna-Vetro, I. and Van P.C. (2006) Approach for ochratoxin A fast screening in spices using clean-up tandem immunoassay columns with confirmation by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Analytica Chimica Acta, 577, 38-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.06.033
Ghali, R., Hmaissia-khlifa, K., Ghorbel, H., Maaroufi, K. and Hedili, A. (2008) Incidence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in Tunisian foods. Food Control, 19, 921-924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.09.003
Sava, V., Reunova, O., Velasquez, A., Harbison, R. and Sanchez-Ramos, J. (2006) Acute neurotoxic effects of the fungal metabolite ochratoxin-A. Neurotoxicology, 27, 82-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2005.07.004
International Agency for Research on Cancer (1993) Some naturally occurring substances: Food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 56, 489-521.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) (2006) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to ochratoxin A in food. Adopted on 4 April 2006. The European Food Safety Authority Journal, 365, 1-56.
Ghali R., Hmaissia-khlifa K., Ghorbel H., Maaroufi K. and Hedili A. (2009) HPLC determination of ochratoxin A in high consumption Tunisian foods. Food Control, 20, 716-720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2008.09.004
Senyuva, H.Z., Gilbert, J., Ozcan, S. and Ulken, U. (2005) Survey for co-occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 in dried figs in Turkey by using a single laboratory-validated alkaline extraction method for ochratoxin A. Journal of Food Protection, 68, 1512-1515.
Bayman, P., Baker, J.L., Doster, M.A., Michailides, T.J. and Mahoney, N.E. (2002) Ochratoxin production by the Aspergillus ochraceus group and Aspergillus alliaceus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 2326-2329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.68.5.2326-2329.2002
Zinedine, A., Soriano, J.M., Juan, C., Mojemmi, B., Molto, J.C., Bouklouze, A., Cherrah, Y., Idrissi, L., El Aouad, R. and Manes, J. (2007). Incidence of ochratoxin A in rice and dried fruits from Rabat and Sale area, Morocco. Food Additives and Contaminants, 24, 285-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030600967230
Lamanaka, B.T., Taniwaki, M.H., Menezes, H.C., Vicente, E. and Fungaro, M.H.P. (2005) Incidence of toxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A in dried fruits sold in Brazil. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22, 1258-1263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030500260447
Magnoli, C., Astoreca, A., Ponsone, L., Combina, M., Palacio, G., Rosa, C.A. and Dalcero, A.M. (2004) Survey of mycoflora and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Argentina markets. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 39, 326-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2004.01583.x
Imperato, R., Campone, L., Piccinelli, A.L., Veneziano, A. and Rastrelli, L. (2011) Survey of aflatoxins and ochratoxin a contamination in food products imported in Italy. Food Control, 22, 1905-1910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.05.002
Mouller, T. E., Nyberg, M. (2003) Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: Basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20, 1072-1076. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030310001615212
Lombaert, G.A., Pellaers, P., Neumann, G., Kitchen, D., Huzel, V., Trelka, R., Kotello, S. and Scott, P.M. (2004) Ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits on the Canadian retail market. Food Additives and Contaminants, 21, 578-585. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030410001687681
Lopez de Cerain, A., Gonzáles-Penas, E., Jiménez, A.M. and Bello, J. (2002) Contribution to the study of ochratoxin A in Spanish wines. Food Additives and Contaminants, 19, 1058-1064. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030210145928
Battilani, P., Giorni, P., Bertuzzi, T., Formenti, S. and Pietri, A. (2006) Black aspergilli and ochratoxin A in grapes in Italy. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 111, S53-S60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.03.006
Sage, L., Krivobok, S., Delbos, E., Seigle-Murandi, F. and Creppy, E.E. (2002) Fungal flora and ochratoxin A production in grapes and musts from France. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 1306-1311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf011015z