Wind loading and windborne debris (missile) impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG) may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically.
Behr, R.A.; Dharani, L.R.; Kremer, P.A.; Ji, F.S.; Kaiser, N.D. Dynamic strains in architectural laminated glass subjected to low velocity impacts from small missiles. J. Mater. Sci. 1999, 34, 5749–5756.
Vallabhan, C.V.G.; Chou, G.D. Stresses and Displacements of Window Glass Due to Wind. In Proceedings of the 5th U.S. National Conference on Wind Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA, 6–8 November 1985.
ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). Standard Test Method for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Missiles and Exposed to Cyclic Pressure Differentials, E1886–05; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2005.
ASTM. Standard Specification for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Missiles and Exposed to Cyclic Pressure Differentials, E1996–08; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2008.