All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Neurocognitive and Social Cognitive Approaches for Improving Functional Outcome in Early Psychosis: Theoretical Considerations and Current State of Evidence

DOI: 10.1155/2012/815315

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Improving functional outcome, in addition to alleviating psychotic symptoms, is now a major treatment objective in schizophrenia research. Given the large body of evidence suggesting pharmacological treatments generally have minimal effects on indices of functioning, research has turned to psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Among these, neurocognitive and social cognitive interventions are at the forefront of this field and are argued to target core deficits inherent to the schizophrenia illness. However, to date, research trials have primarily focused on chronic schizophrenia populations, neglecting the early psychosis groups who are often as severely impaired in social and occupational functioning. This theoretical paper will outline the rationale for investigating adjunctive cognitive-based interventions in the early phases of psychotic illness, critically examine the current approach strategies used in these interventions, and assess the evidence supporting certain training programs for improving functional outcome in early psychosis. Potential pathways for future research will be discussed. 1. Introduction The field of schizophrenia research and treatment is in a transitional phase, shifting from a focus on outcomes that are measured by symptomatic remission and basic illness management to an all-encompassing outlook on real-world functional recovery [1, 2]. This is an exciting time for researchers and consumers, as the improvement in social, occupational, and personally challenging activities that impact the individual’s day-to-day living are now primary research objectives. In this research era it is also widely acknowledged that the early phase of a psychotic illness, known as the “critical period,” is the most crucial in terms of limiting or even preventing the development of disability, with maximal levels of disability reached within the first 5 years after illness onset [3]. The first onset of psychosis typically occurs between the age of 18 and 24 [4], although prodromal symptoms are often detectable in the adolescent years [5]. There is a paucity of research that has focused investigation on the “functional” outcome of this early psychosis cohort. A systematic review of 37 early detection/intervention studies in first-episode psychosis (FEP) found that 42% of patients had “good” illness outcomes as opposed to 27% who had “poor” outcomes at an average of 3-year follow-up [6]. However, outcome was predominantly defined by hospital readmission or change in symptom severity, with only 4 of the 37 studies reporting functional recovery.

References

[1]  R. W. Buchanan, M. Davis, D. Goff et al., “A summary of the FDA-NIMH-MATRICS workshop on clinical trial design for neurocognitive drugs for schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 5–19, 2005.
[2]  P. D. Harvey and A. S. Bellack, “Toward a terminology for functional recovery in schizophrenia: is functional remission a viable concept?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 300–306, 2009.
[3]  M. Birchwood, P. Todd, and C. Jackson, “Early intervention in psychosis: the critical period hypothesis,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 172, no. 33, pp. 53–59, 1998.
[4]  A. Jablensky, “Epidemiology of schizophrenia: the global burden of disease and disability,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 250, no. 6, pp. 274–285, 2000.
[5]  A. R. Yung, L. J. Phillips, H. P. Yuen et al., “Psychosis prediction: 12-Month follow up of a high-risk (“prodromal”) group,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 2003.
[6]  N. M. Menezes, T. Arenovich, and R. B. Zipursky, “A systematic review of longitudinal outcome studies of first-episode psychosis,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1349–1362, 2006.
[7]  A. Malla and J. Payne, “First-episode psychosis: psychopathology, quality of life, and functional outcome,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 650–671, 2005.
[8]  P. A. Garety, T. K. J. Craig, G. Dunn et al., “Specialised care for early psychosis: symptoms, social functioning and patient satisfaction—randomised controlled trial,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 188, pp. 37–45, 2006.
[9]  A. Thorup, L. Petersen, P. Jeppesen et al., “Integrated treatment ameliorates negative symptoms in first episode psychosis—results from the Danish OPUS trial,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 95–105, 2005.
[10]  E. Killackey and A. R. Yung, “Effectiveness of early intervention in psychosis,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 121–125, 2007.
[11]  P. D. McGorry, J. Edwards, C. Mihalopoulos, S. M. Harrigan, and H. J. Jackson, “EPPIC: an evolving system of early detection and optimal management,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 305–326, 1996.
[12]  R. M. Bilder, “The neuropsychology of schizophrenia circa 2009,” Neuropsychology Review, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 277–279, 2009.
[13]  C. F. Bartholomeusz, E. Killackey, A. Thompson, et al., “Interventions targeting social and vocational dysfunction in individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder,” in Handbook of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, M. Ritsner, Ed., vol. 3, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2011.
[14]  S. M. Couture, D. L. Penn, and D. L. Roberts, “The functional significance of social cognition in schizophrenia: a review,” Schizophrenia bulletin, vol. 32, pp. S44–S63, 2006.
[15]  S. J. Blakemore, “Development of the social brain during adolescence,” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 40–49, 2008.
[16]  T. Paus, “Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 60–68, 2005.
[17]  N. Gogtay, J. N. Giedd, L. Lusk et al., “Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 21, pp. 8174–8179, 2004.
[18]  L. Steinberg, “Cognitive and affective development in adolescence,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 69–74, 2005.
[19]  L. Steinberg and A. S. Morris, “Adolescent development,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 52, pp. 83–110, 2001.
[20]  T. Paus, M. Keshavan, and J. N. Giedd, “Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence?” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 947–957, 2008.
[21]  Australian Bureau of Statistics, National survey of mental health and wellbeing: summary of results, Australain Bureau of Statistics,, Sydney, Australia, 2007.
[22]  V. Morgan, A. Waterreus, A. Jablensky, et al., People living with psychotic illness 2010: report on the second Australian national survey, Department of Health and Aging, Canberra, Australia, 2011.
[23]  C. Pantelis, M. Yücel, E. Bora et al., “Neurobiological markers of illness onset in psychosis and schizophrenia: the search for a moving target,” Neuropsychology Review, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 385–398, 2009.
[24]  R. I. Mesholam-Gately, A. J. Giuliano, K. P. Goff, S. V. Faraone, and L. J. Seidman, “Neurocognition in first-episode Schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review,” Neuropsychology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 315–336, 2009.
[25]  D. Dickinson, J. D. Ragland, J. M. Gold, and R. C. Gur, “General and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: Goliath defeats David?” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 823–827, 2008.
[26]  V. P. Bozikas and C. Andreou, “Longitudinal studies of cognition in first episode psychosis: a systematic review of the literature,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 93–108, 2011.
[27]  W. J. Brewer, S. J. Wood, L. J. Phillips et al., “Generalized and specific cognitive performance in clinical high-risk cohorts: a review highlighting potential vulnerability markers for psychosis,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 538–555, 2006.
[28]  C. U. Correll, M. Hauser, A. M. Auther, and B. A. Cornblatt, “Research in people with psychosis risk syndrome: a review of the current evidence and future directions,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 390–431, 2010.
[29]  P. Fusar-Poli, J. Perez, M. Broome et al., “Neurofunctional correlates of vulnerability to psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 465–484, 2007.
[30]  J. Addington, H. Saeedi, and D. Addington, “Facial affect recognition: a mediator between cognitive and social functioning in psychosis?” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 85, no. 1–3, pp. 142–150, 2006.
[31]  J. Edwards, P. E. Pattison, H. J. Jackson, and R. J. Wales, “Facial affect and affective prosody recognition in first-episode schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 48, no. 2-3, pp. 235–253, 2001.
[32]  A. E. Pinkham, D. L. Penn, D. O. Perkins, K. A. Graham, and M. Siegel, “Emotion perception and social skill over the course of psychosis: a comparison of individuals “at-risk” for psychosis and individuals with early and chronic schizophrenia spectrum illness,” Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 198–212, 2007.
[33]  G. P. Amminger, M. R. Schafer, K. Papageorgiou, et al., “Emotion recognition in individuals at clinical high-risk for Schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin. In press.
[34]  M. F. Green, C. E. Bearden, T. D. Cannon, et al., “Social cognition in Schizophrenia, Part 1: performance across phase of illness,” Schizophrenia Bulletin. In press.
[35]  M. C. Bertrand, H. Sutton, A. M. Achim, A. K. Malla, and M. Lepage, “Social cognitive impairments in first episode psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 95, no. 1–3, pp. 124–133, 2007.
[36]  T. Montreuil, M. Bodnar, M. C. Bertrand, A. K. Malla, R. Joober, and M. Lepage, “Social cognitive markers of short-term clinical outcome in first-episode psychosis,” Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 105–114, 2010.
[37]  Y. Inoue, K. Yamada, M. Hirano et al., “Impairment of theory of mind in patients in remission following first episode of schizophrenia,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 256, no. 5, pp. 326–328, 2006.
[38]  J. W. L. Kettle, L. O'Brien-Simpson, and N. B. Allen, “Impaired theory of mind in first-episode schizophrenia: comparison with community, university and depressed controls,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 99, no. 1–3, pp. 96–102, 2008.
[39]  K. Koelkebeck, A. Pedersen, T. Suslow, K. A. Kueppers, V. Arolt, and P. Ohrmann, “Theory of Mind in first-episode schizophrenia patients: correlations with cognition and personality traits,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 119, no. 1–3, pp. 115–123, 2010.
[40]  H. Krstev, H. Jackson, and D. Maude, “An investigation of attributional style in first-episode psychosis,” British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 181–194, 1999.
[41]  S. K. An, J. I. Kang, J. Y. Park, K. R. Kim, S. Y. Lee, and E. Lee, “Attribution bias in ultra-high risk for psychosis and first-episode schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 118, no. 1–3, pp. 54–61, 2010.
[42]  A. D. Thompson, C. Bartholomeusz, and A. R. Yung, “Social cognition deficits and the 'ultra high risk' for psychosis population: a review of literature,” Early Intervention in Psychiatry, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 192–202, 2011.
[43]  J. Addington, D. Penn, S. W. Woods, D. Addington, and D. O. Perkins, “Facial affect recognition in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 192, no. 1, pp. 67–68, 2008.
[44]  M. Schloegelhofer, M. Schaefer, K. Papageorgiou, et al., “Emotion recognition in individuals at Ultra High Risk for psychosis,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 86, pp. S94–S95, 2006.
[45]  S. van Rijn, A. Aleman, L. de Sonneville et al., “Misattribution of facial expressions of emotion in adolescents at increased risk of psychosis: the role of inhibitory control,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 41, pp. 499–508, 2011.
[46]  Y. S. Chung, D. H. Kang, N. Y. Shin, S. Y. Yoo, and J. S. Kwon, “Deficit of theory of mind in individuals at ultra-high-risk for schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 99, no. 1–3, pp. 111–118, 2008.
[47]  S. M. Couture, D. L. Penn, J. Addington, S. W. Woods, and D. O. Perkins, “Assessment of social judgments and complex mental states in the early phases of psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 100, no. 1–3, pp. 237–241, 2008.
[48]  S. J. Blakemore, “The social brain in adolescence,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 267–277, 2008.
[49]  C. Pantelis, D. Velakoulis, S. J. Wood et al., “Neuroimaging and emerging psychotic disorders: the Melbourne ultra-high risk studies,” International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 373–381, 2007.
[50]  W. H. Jung, J. H. Jang, M. S. Byun, S. K. An, and J. S. Kwon, “Structural brain alterations in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis: a review of magnetic resonance imaging studies and future directions,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1700–1709, 2010.
[51]  N. Y. Seiferth, K. Pauly, T. Kellermann et al., “Neuronal correlates of facial emotion discrimination in early onset schizophrenia,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 477–487, 2009.
[52]  N. Y. Seiferth, K. Pauly, U. Habel et al., “Increased neural response related to neutral faces in individuals at risk for psychosis,” NeuroImage, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 289–297, 2008.
[53]  M. Brüne, S. ?zgürdal, N. Ansorge et al., “An fMRI study of "theory of mind" in at-risk states of psychosis: comparison with manifest schizophrenia and healthy controls,” NeuroImage, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 329–337, 2011.
[54]  K. Boksman, J. Théberge, P. Williamson et al., “A 4.0-T fMRI study of brain connectivity during word fluency in first-episode schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 75, no. 2-3, pp. 247–263, 2005.
[55]  N. D. Woodward, B. Waldie, B. Rogers, P. Tibbo, P. Seres, and S. E. Purdon, “Abnormal prefrontal cortical activity and connectivity during response selection in first episode psychosis, chronic schizophrenia, and unaffected siblings of individuals with schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 109, no. 1–3, pp. 182–190, 2009.
[56]  D. Luck, L. Buchy, Y. Czechowska et al., “Fronto-temporal disconnectivity and clinical short-term outcome in first episode psychosis: a DTI-tractography study,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 369–377, 2011.
[57]  N. A. Crossley, A. Mechelli, P. Fusar-Poli et al., “Superior temporal lobe dysfunction and frontotemporal dysconnectivity in subjects at risk of psychosis and in first-episode psychosis,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 4129–4137, 2009.
[58]  M. F. Green, R. S. Kern, D. L. Braff, and J. Mintz, “Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the “right stuff”?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 119–136, 2000.
[59]  A. K. J. Fett, W. Viechtbauer, M. D. G. Dominguez, D. L. Penn, J. van Os, and L. Krabbendam, “The relationship between neurocognition and social cognition with functional outcomes in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 573–588, 2011.
[60]  K. Allott, P. Liu, T. M. Proffitt, and E. Killackey, “Cognition at illness onset as a predictor of later functional outcome in early psychosis: systematic review and methodological critique,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 125, pp. 221–235, 2011.
[61]  M. Bell, H. W. H. Tsang, T. C. Greig, and G. J. Bryson, “Neurocognition, social cognition, perceived social discomfort, and vocational outcomes in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 738–747, 2009.
[62]  M. Brüne, “Emotion recognition, “theory of mind,” and social behavior in schizophrenia,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 133, no. 2-3, pp. 135–147, 2005.
[63]  A. E. Pinkham and D. L. Penn, “Neurocognitive and social cognitive predictors of interpersonal skill in schizophrenia,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 143, no. 2-3, pp. 167–178, 2006.
[64]  D. N. Allen, G. P. Strauss, B. Donohue, and D. P. van Kammen, “Factor analytic support for social cognition as a separable cognitive domain in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 325–333, 2007.
[65]  L. M. Williams, T. J. Whitford, G. Flynn et al., “General and social cognition in first episode schizophrenia: identification of separable factors and prediction of functional outcome using the IntegNeuro test battery,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 99, no. 1–3, pp. 182–191, 2008.
[66]  J. Addington, T. A. Girard, B. K. Christensen, and D. Addington, “Social cognition mediates illness-related and cognitive influences on social function in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2010.
[67]  M. J. Sergi, Y. Rassovsky, K. H. Nuechterlein, and M. F. Green, “Social perception as a mediator of the influence of early visual processing on functional status in schizophrenia,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 448–454, 2006.
[68]  R. Vauth, N. Rüsch, M. Wirtz, and P. W. Corrigan, “Does social cognition influence the relation between neurocognitive deficits and vocational functioning in schizophrenia?” Psychiatry Research, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 155–165, 2004.
[69]  J. Brekke, D. D. Kay, K. S. Lee, and M. F. Green, “Biosocial pathways to functional outcome in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 80, no. 2-3, pp. 213–225, 2005.
[70]  J. Addington, H. Saeedi, and D. Addington, “Influence of social perception and social knowledge on cognitive and social functioning in early psychosis,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 189, pp. 373–378, 2006.
[71]  W. P. Horan, M. F. Green, M. Degroot, et al., “Social cognition in Schizophrenia, Part 2: 12-month stability and prediction of functional outcome in first-episode patients,” Schizophrenia Bulletin. In press.
[72]  T. Wykes, V. Huddy, C. Cellard, S. R. McGurk, and P. Czobor, “A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 472–485, 2011.
[73]  A. Medalia and J. Choi, “Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia,” Neuropsychology Review, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 353–364, 2009.
[74]  M. Fisher, C. Holland, M. M. Merzenich, and S. Vinogradov, “Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 166, no. 7, pp. 805–811, 2009.
[75]  S. R. McGurk, E. W. Twamley, D. I. Sitzer, G. J. McHugo, and K. T. Mueser, “A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, no. 12, pp. 1791–1802, 2007.
[76]  M. M. Kurtz and C. L. Richardson, “Social cognitive training for schizophrenia: a meta-analytic investigation of controlled research,” Schizophrenia Bulletin. In press.
[77]  W. P. Horan, R. S. Kern, C. Tripp et al., “Efficacy and specificity of social cognitive skills training for outpatients with psychotic disorders,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1113–1122, 2011.
[78]  V. Roder, D. R. Mueller, K. T. Mueser, and H. D. Brenner, “Integrated psychological therapy (IPT) for schizophrenia: is it effective?” Schizophrenia bulletin, vol. 32, pp. S81–S93, 2006.
[79]  S. Rauchensteiner, W. Kawohl, S. Ozgurdal et al., “Test-performance after cognitive training in persons at risk mental state of schizophrenia and patients with schizophrenia,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 185, pp. 334–339, 2011.
[80]  S. R. McGurk and K. T. Mueser, “Response to cognitive rehabilitation in older versus younger persons with severe mental illness,” American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 90–105, 2008.
[81]  T. Wykes, C. Reeder, S. Landau, P. Matthiasson, E. Haworth, and C. Hutchinson, “Does age matter? Effects of cognitive rehabilitation across the age span,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 113, no. 2-3, pp. 252–258, 2009.
[82]  G. E. Hogarty, S. Flesher, R. Ulrich et al., “Cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia: effects of a 2-year randomized trial on cognition and behavior,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 866–876, 2004.
[83]  M. F. Green, “Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: is it time yet?” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 178–187, 1993.
[84]  M. Fisher, C. Holland, K. Subramaniam, and S. Vinogradov, “Neuroplasticity-based cognitive training in schizophrenia: an interim report on the effects 6 months later,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 869–879, 2010.
[85]  A. Medalia and B. Freilich, “The Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Cognitive Remediation (NEAR) model: practice principles and outcome studies,” American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 123–143, 2008.
[86]  E. W. Twamley, D. V. Jeste, and A. S. Bellack, “A review of cognitive training in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 359–382, 2003.
[87]  T. Wykes and C. Reeder, Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Schizophrenia: Theory and Practice, Routledge, London, UK, 2005.
[88]  A. Delahunty and R. Morice, A training programme for the remediation of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, Department of Health, Albury, Australia, 1993.
[89]  E. W. Twamley, G. N. Savla, C. H. Zurhellen, R. K. Heaton, and D. V. Jeste, “Development and pilot testing of a novel compensatory cognitive training intervention for people with psychosis,” American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 144–163, 2008.
[90]  G. H. M. Pijnenborg, F. K. Withaar, J. J. Evans, R. J. Van Den Bosch, and W. H. Brouwer, “SMS text messages as a prosthetic aid in the cognitive rehabilitation of schizophrenia,” Rehabilitation Psychology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 236–240, 2007.
[91]  D. I. Velligan, C. C. Bow-Thomas, C. Huntzinger et al., “Randomized controlled trial of the use of compensatory strategies to enhance adaptive functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 8, pp. 1317–1323, 2000.
[92]  A. S. Bellack, J. M. Gold, and R. W. Buchanan, “Cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia: problems, prospects, and strategies,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 257–274, 1999.
[93]  D. I. Velligan, J. L. Ritch, and N. J. Maples, Cognitive Adaptation Training: The Use of Compensatory Strategies in the Psychosocial Rehabilitation of Patients with Schizophrenia, UTHSC, Department of Psychiatry, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2nd edition, 2010.
[94]  E. W. Twamley, C. Z. Burton, and L. Vella, “Compensatory cognitive training for psychosis: who benefits? who stays in treatment?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, supplement 2, pp. S55–S62, 2011.
[95]  D. I. Velligan, R. S. Kern, and J. M. Gold, “Cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia and the putative role of motivation and expectancies,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 474–485, 2006.
[96]  R. S. Kern, M. F. Green, J. Mintz, and R. P. Liberman, “Does “errorless learning” compensate for neurocognitive impairments in the work rehabilitation of persons with schizophrenia?” Psychological Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 433–442, 2003.
[97]  J. W. Pope and R. S. Kern, “An "errorful" learning deficit in schizophrenia?” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 2006.
[98]  R. E. O'Carroll, H. H. Russell, S. M. Lawrie, and E. C. Johnstone, “Errorless learning and the cognitive rehabilitation of memory-impaired schizophrenic patients,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 105–112, 1999.
[99]  R. S. Kern, M. F. Green, S. Mitchell, A. Kopelowicz, J. Mintz, and R. P. Liberman, “Extensions of errorless learning for social problem-solving deficits in schizophrenia,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, no. 3, pp. 513–519, 2005.
[100]  R. S. Kern, R. P. Liberman, D. R. Becker, R. E. Drake, C. A. Sugar, and M. F. Green, “Errorless learning for training individuals with schizophrenia at a community mental health setting providing work experience,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 807–815, 2009.
[101]  S. M. Silverstein, “Bridging the gap between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in the cognitive remediation of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 949–956, 2010.
[102]  L. Krabbendam and A. Aleman, “Cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: a quantitative analysis of controlled studies,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 169, no. 3-4, pp. 376–382, 2003.
[103]  M. Bell, G. Bryson, T. Greig, C. Corcoran, and B. E. Wexler, “Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with work therapy: effects on neuropsychological test performance,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 763–768, 2001.
[104]  S. R. McGurk, K. T. Mueser, and A. Pascaris, “Cognitive training and supported employment for persons with severe mental illness: one-year results from a randomized controlled trial,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 898–909, 2005.
[105]  S. M. Silverstein, W. D. Spaulding, A. A. Menditto et al., “Attention shaping: a reward-based learning method to enhance skills training outcomes in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 222–232, 2009.
[106]  T. Wykes, C. Reeder, C. Williams, J. Corner, C. Rice, and B. Everitt, “Are the effects of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) durable? Results from an exploratory trial in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 61, no. 2-3, pp. 163–174, 2003.
[107]  L. W. Davis and P. H. Lysaker, “Cognitive behavioral therapy and functional and metacognitive outcomes in schizophrenia: a single case study,” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 468–478, 2005.
[108]  S. Moritz, M. Burlon, and T. S. Woodward, Metacognitive Skills Training for Patients with Schizophrenia (MCT). Version 3.2, VanHam Campus Press, Hamburg, Germany, 2005.
[109]  D. Koren, L. J. Seidman, M. Goldsmith, and P. D. Harvey, “Real-world cognitive—and metacognitive—dysfunction in schizophrenia: a new approach for measuring (and remediating) more ‘right stuff’,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 310–326, 2006.
[110]  A. S. Bellack, C. H. Brown, and S. Thomas-Lohrman, “Psychometric characteristics of role-play assessments of social skill in schizophrenia,” Behavior Therapy, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 339–352, 2006.
[111]  D. R. Combs, S. D. Adams, D. L. Penn, D. Roberts, J. Tiegreen, and P. Stem, “Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) for inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: preliminary findings,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 91, no. 1–3, pp. 112–116, 2007.
[112]  L. Carr, M. Iacoboni, M. C. Dubeaut, J. C. Mazziotta, and G. L. Lenzi, “Neural mechanisms of empathy in humans: a relay from neural systems for imitation to limbic areas,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 5497–5502, 2003.
[113]  L. M. Oberman and V. S. Ramachandran, “The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 310–327, 2007.
[114]  J. S. Singh and D. A. Hope, “Cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of social anxiety disorder,” Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 2009.
[115]  J. Wolpe, The Practice of Behaviour Therapy, Pergamon, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1969.
[116]  K. Ponniah and S. D. Hollon, “Empirically supported psychological interventions for social phobia in adults: a qualitative review of randomized controlled trials,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2008.
[117]  K. Ponniah and S. D. Hollon, “Empirically supported psychological interventions for social phobia in adults: a qualitative review of randomized controlled trials,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2008.
[118]  D. Roberts, D. Penn, and D. Combs, “Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) Treatment Manual,” 2010.
[119]  G. E. Hogarty and D. P. Greenwald, Cognitive Enhancement Therapy: The Training Manual, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, 2006.
[120]  S. Vinogradov, R. Loewy, M. Fisher, et al., “Neuroplasticity-based cognitive training in early psychosis (Abstract),” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 67, pp. S188–S189, 2010.
[121]  A. Lin, S. J. Wood, B. Nelson et al., “Neurocognitive predictors of functional outcome two to 13 years after identification as ultra-high risk for psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2011.
[122]  T. A. Niendam, C. E. Bearden, J. K. Johnson et al., “Neurocognitive performance and functional disability in the psychosis prodrome,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 100–111, 2006.
[123]  T. Ueland and B. R. Rund, “A controlled randomized treatment study: the effects of a cognitive remediation program on adolescents with early onset psychosis,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 70–74, 2004.
[124]  T. Ueland and B. R. Rund, “Cognitive remediation for adolescents with early onset psychosis: a 1-year follow-up study,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 193–201, 2005.
[125]  T. Wykes, E. Newton, S. Landau, C. Rice, N. Thompson, and S. Frangou, “Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for young early onset patients with schizophrenia: an exploratory randomized controlled trial,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 94, no. 1–3, pp. 221–230, 2007.
[126]  S. M. Eack, D. P. Greenwald, S. S. Hogarty et al., “Cognitive enhancement therapy for early-course schizophrenia: effects of a two-year randomized controlled trial,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1468–1476, 2009.
[127]  S. M. Eack, G. E. Hogarty, D. P. Greenwald, S. S. Hogarty, and M. S. Keshavan, “Effects of cognitive enhancement therapy on employment outcomes in early schizophrenia: results from a 2-year randomized trial,” Research on Social Work Practice, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 32–42, 2011.
[128]  S. M. Eack, D. P. Greenwald, S. S. Hogarty, and M. S. Keshavan, “One-year durability of the effects of cognitive enhancement therapy on functional outcome in early schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 120, no. 1–3, pp. 210–216, 2010.
[129]  T. Wykes and W. D. Spaulding, “Thinking about the future cognitive remediation therapy-what works and could we do better?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, supplement 2, pp. S80–S90, 2011.
[130]  D. L. Penn, D. L. Roberts, D. Combs, and A. Sterne, “The development of the social cognition and interaction training program for schizophrenia spectrum disorders,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 449–451, 2007.
[131]  M. Birchwood, J. Smith, R. Cochrane, S. Wetton, and S. Copestake, “The Social Functioning Scale. The development and validation of a new scale of social adjustment for use in family intervention programmes with schizophrenic patients,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, pp. 853–859, 1990.
[132]  D. L. Roberts and D. L. Penn, “Social cognition and interaction training (SCIT) for outpatients with schizophrenia: a preliminary study,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 166, no. 2-3, pp. 141–147, 2009.
[133]  D. L. Roberts, D. L. Penn, D. Labate, S. A. Margolis, and A. Sterne, “Transportability and feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) in community settings,” Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 35–47, 2010.
[134]  M. Mazza, G. Lucci, F. Pacitti et al., “Could schizophrenic subjects improve their social cognition abilities only with observation and imitation of social situations?” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 675–703, 2010.
[135]  V. Gallese, “Mirror neurons, embodied simulation, and the neural basis of social identification,” Psychoanalytic Dialogues, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 519–536, 2009.
[136]  J. H. Kwon, Social Cognition Enhancement Rehabilitation Program, Hakjisa, Seoul, Korea, 2003.
[137]  K. H. Choi and J. H. Kwon, “Social cognition enhancement training for schizophrenia: a preliminary randomized controlled trial,” Community Mental Health Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 177–187, 2006.
[138]  R. Roncone, M. Mazza, I. Frangou et al., “Rehabilitation of theory of mind deficit in schizophrenia: a pilot study of metacognitive strategies in group treatment,” Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 421–435, 2004.
[139]  W. W?lwer, N. Frommann, S. Halfmann, A. Piaszek, M. Streit, and W. Gaebel, “Remediation of impairments in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: efficacy and specificity of a new training program,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 80, no. 2-3, pp. 295–303, 2005.
[140]  T. A. Russell, M. J. Green, I. Simpson, and M. Coltheart, “Remediation of facial emotion perception in schizophrenia: concomitant changes in visual attention,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 103, no. 1–3, pp. 248–256, 2008.
[141]  D. S. Bio and W. F. Gattaz, “Vocational rehabilitation improves cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 126, no. 1–3, pp. 265–269, 2011.
[142]  L. Vesterager, T. T. Christensen, B. B. Olsen et al., “Cognitive training plus a comprehensive psychosocial programme (OPUS) versus the comprehensive psychosocial programme alone for patients with first-episode schizophrenia (the NEUROCOM trial): a study protocol for a centrally randomised, observer-blinded multi-centre clinical trial,” Trials, vol. 12, article 35, 2011.
[143]  N. J. K. Breitborde, F. A. Moreno, N. Mai-Dixon et al., “Multifamily group psychoeducation and cognitive remediation for first-episode psychosis: a randomized controlled trial,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 11, article 9, 2011.
[144]  H. D. Brenner, “The treatment of basic psychological dysfunctions from a systemic point of view,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 5, pp. 74–83, 1989.
[145]  H. D. Brenner, B. Hodel, V. Roder, and P. Corrigan, “Treatment of cognitive dysfunctions and behavioral deficits in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 1992.
[146]  V. Roder, D. R. Mueller, K. T. Mueser, and H. D. Brenner, “Integrated psychological therapy (IPT) for schizophrenia: is it effective?” Schizophrenia bulletin, vol. 32, supplement1, pp. S81–93, 2006.
[147]  D. I. Velligan, P. M. Diamond, J. Mintz et al., “The use of individually tailored environmental supports to improve medication adherence and outcomes in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 483–493, 2008.
[148]  W. P. Horan, R. S. Kern, K. Shokat-Fadai, M. J. Sergi, J. K. Wynn, and M. F. Green, “Social cognitive skills training in schizophrenia: an initial efficacy study of stabilized outpatients,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2009.
[149]  S. M. Eack, G. E. Hogarty, R. Y. Cho et al., “Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enhancement therapy against gray matter loss in early schizophrenia: results from a 2-year randomized controlled trial,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 674–682, 2010.
[150]  B. E. Wexler, M. Anderson, R. K. Fulbright, and J. C. Gore, “Preliminary evidence of improved verbal working memory performance and normalization of task-related frontal lobe activation in schizophrenia following cognitive exercises,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 10, pp. 1694–1697, 2000.
[151]  S. Vinogradov, M. Fisher, C. Holland, W. Shelly, O. Wolkowitz, and S. H. Mellon, “Is serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor a biomarker for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia?” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 549–553, 2009.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus