Antibiotic Consumption and Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli at a Large Medical Center in Taiwan from 2002 to 2009: Implicating the Importance of Antibiotic Stewardship
Background Better depicting the relationship between antibiotic consumption and evolutionary healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) may help highlight the importance of antibiotic stewardship. Methodology/Principal Findings The correlations between antibiotic consumption and MDR-GNB HAIs at a 2,700-bed primary care and tertiary referral center in Taiwan between 2002 and 2009 were assessed. MDR-GNB HAI referred to a HAI caused by MDR-Enterobacteriaceae, MDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa or MDR-Acinetobacter spp. Consumptions of individual antibiotics and MDR-GNB HAI series were first evaluated for trend over time. When a trend was significant, the presence or absence of associations between the selected clinically meaningful antibiotic resistance and antibiotic consumption was further explored using cross-correlation analyses. Significant major findings included (i) increased consumptions of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminopenicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors, piperacillin/tazobactam, and fluoroquinolones, (ii) decreased consumptions of non-extended-spectrum cephalosporins, natural penicillins, aminopenicillins, ureidopenicillin and aminoglycosides, and (iii) decreasing trend in the incidence of the overall HAIs, stable trends in GNB HAIs and MDR-GNB HAIs throughout the study period, and increasing trend in HAIs caused by carbapenem-resistant (CR) Acinetobacter spp. since 2006. HAIs due to CR-Acinetobacter spp. was found to positively correlate with the consumptions of carbapenems, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aminopenicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors, piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolones, and negatively correlate with the consumptions of non-extended-spectrum cephalosporins, penicillins and aminoglycosides. No significant association was found between the increased use of piperacilllin/tazobactam and increasing HAIs due to CR-Acinetobacter spp. Conclusions The trend in overall HAIs decreased and trends in GNB HAIs and MDR-GNB HAIs remained stable over time suggesting that the infection control practice was effective during the study period, and the escalating HAIs due to CR- Acinetobacter spp. were driven by consumptions of broad-spectrum antibiotics other than piperacillin/tazobactam. Our data underscore the importance of antibiotic stewardship in the improvement of the trend of HAIs caused by Acinetobacter spp.