Objective:To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF therapy on resistance to insulin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with patients with RA being treated with non-biological DMARDs.Methods:Inactive patients diagnosed with RA (ACR 1987 criteria) (DAS 28<2.6) were included, being treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (anti-TNF) (cases) and non-biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) (controls), without risk factors for insulin resistance (administration of steroids, body mass index >25kg/m2, diabetes mellitus or use of glucose lowering agents, systemic arterial hypertension or use of anti-hypertensive drugs, triglycerides >150mg/dl, hypercholesterolemia >200mg/dl, high-density lipoproteins <40mg/dl in men and <50mg/in women, or with lipids lowering agents, waist measurement >88cm in women and >102cm in men). We used HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) to determine insulin resistance in both groups, HOMA being defined as >1 and sensitivity to insulin using QUICKI (Insulin Sensitivity Check Index), ≥0.38 being considered as normal. The Mann Whitney U was used for the statistical analysis.Results:A total of 28 patients, 15 being treated with non-biological DMARDs and 13 with anti-TNF therapy, were evaluated; 89.7%, of which were women. Average age: 43.5 (range 21-62); the average HOMA index of the non-biological DMARD group was 1.58 (range 0.7-5.4), compared with patients treated with anti-TNF therapy, 1.18 (range 0.2-4.3) (P=0.5). The average QUICKI index was 0.36 (range 0.30-
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