The paper does not meet the standards of \"Food and Nutrition Sciences\".
This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. The aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.
Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Dr. Alessandra Bordoni (EiC of FNS)
E. C. Rizos, E. E. Ntzani, E. Bika, M. S. Kostapanos and M. S. Elisaf, “Association between Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Risk of Major Cardiovascular Dis ease Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 308, No. 10, 2012, pp.1024-1033.
S. M. Kwak, S. K. Myung, Y. J. Lee, H. G. Seo and for the Korean Meta-Analysis Study Group, “Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements (Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid) in the Secondary Pre vention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 172, No. 9, 2012, pp.686-694. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.262
J. H. Chin, S. Azhar and B. B. Hoffman, “Inactivation of Endothelial Derived Relaxing Factor by Oxidized Lipo proteins,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 89, No. 1, 1992, pp. 10-18. doi:10.1172/JCI115549
P. E. Wainwright, Y. S. Huang, B. Bulman-Fleming, et al., “The Effects of Dietary n-3/n-6 Ratio on Brain De velopment in the Mouse: A Dose Response Study with Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids,” Lipids, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1992, pp. 98-103. doi:10.1007/BF02535807
S. K. Abbott, P. L. Else and A. J. Hulbert, “Membrane Fatty Acid Composition of to the Balance of Dietary n-3 and Rat Skeletal Muscle Is Most Responsive n-6 PUPF,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 103, No. 4, 2010, pp. 522-529. doi:10.1017/S0007114509992133
H. Esterbauer, H. Puhl, M. Dieber-Rotheneder, G. Waeg and H. Rabi, “Effect of Antioxidants on Oxidative Modi fication of LDL,” Annals of Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1991, pp. 573-581. doi:10.3109/07853899109150520
K. M. Bothem and P. A. Mayes, “Cholesterol Synthesis, Transport, and Excretion,” In: P. K. Murray, D. K. Gran ner, P. A. Mayes and V. W. Rodwell, Eds., Harper’s Il lustrated Biochemistry, 26th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003, p. 235.
W. B. Zhang, P. B. Addis and T. P. Krick, “Quantifica tion of 5α-Cholestane-3β, 5, 6β-Triol and Other Choles terol Oxidation Products in Fast Food French Fried Pota toes,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 56, No. 3, 1991, pp. 716-718. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb05364.x
W. Korytowski, G. J. Bachowski and A. W. Girotti, “Photoperoxidation of Cholesterol in Homogenous Solu tion, Isolated Membranes, and Cells: Comparisons of the 5α and 6β-Hydroperoxides as Indicators of Singlet Oxy gen Intermediacy,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vol. 56, No. 1, 1992, pp. 1-8.
G. Spiteller, “Is Atherosclerosis a Multifactorial Disease or Is It Induced by a Sequence of Lipid Peroxidation Reactions?” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1043, No. 1, 2005, pp. 355-366.
G. Spiteller, “Peroxyl Radicals: Inductors of Neurode generative and Other Inflammatory Diseases. Their Ori gin and How They Transform, Cholesterol, Phospholipids, Plasmalogens, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Sugars, and Proteins into Deleterious Products,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2006, pp. 362-387.
C. Weiss, S. Regele, T. Velich, P. Bartsch and T. Weiss, “Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis in Patients with Intermittent Claudication: Effects of Prostaglandin E1,” Prostagland ins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Vol. 63, No. 5, 2000, pp. 271-277.
I. M. Campbell, D. N. Crozier and R. B. Caton, “Abnor mal Fatty Acid Composition and Impaired Oxygen Sup ply in Cystic Fibrosis Patients,” Pediatrics, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1976, pp. 480-486. doi:10.1054/plef.2000.0214
R. S. Chapkin, V. A. Ziboh, C. L. Marcelo and J. J. Voor hees, “Metabolism of Essential Fatty Acids by Human Epidermal Enzyme Preparations: Evidence of Chain Elongation,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 27, No. 9, 1986, pp. 945-954.
A. Andersson, A. Sjodin, A. Hedman, R. Olsson and B. Vessby, “Fatty Acid Profile of Skeletal Muscle Phos pholipids in Trained and Untrained Young Men,” Ameri can Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabo lism, Vol. 279, No. 4, 2000, pp. E744-E751.
G. Spiteller, “The Relation of Lipid Peroxidation Proc esses with Atherogenesis: A New Theory on Atherogene sis,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 49, No. 11, 2005, pp. 999-1013. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200500055
U. N. Das, “A Defect in the Activity of D6 and D5 De saturases May Be a Factor in the Initiation and Progres sion of Atherosclerosis,” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Vol. 76, No. 5, 2007, pp. 251-268. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2007.03.001
S. D. Anton, K. Heekin, C. Simkins and A. Acosta, “Dif ferential Effects of Adulterated versus Unadulterated Forms of Linoleic Acid on Cardiovascular Health,” Jour nal of Integrative Medicine, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2013, pp. 2-10. doi:10.3736/jintegrmed2013002
M. B. Katan, J. P. Deslypere, A. P. van Birgelen, M. Penders and M. Zegwaard, “Kinetics of the Incorporation of Dietary Fatty Acids into Serum Cholesteryl Esters, Erythrocyte Membranes, and Adipose Tissue: An 18-Month Controlled Study,” Journal of Lipids Research, Vol. 38, No. 10, 1997, pp. 2012-2022.
H. Esterbauer, G. Jürgens, O. Quehenberger and E. Koller, “Autoxidation of Human Low Density Lipoprotein: Loss of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Vitamin E and Gen eration of Aldehydes,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 28, 1987, pp. 495-509. www.jlr.org/content/28/5/495.full.pdf
H. Kühn, J. Belkner, R. Wiesner, T. Schewe, V. Z. Lankin and A. K. Tikhaze, “Structure Elucidation of Oxy genated Lipids in Human Atherosclerotic Lesions,” Ei cosanoids, Vol. 5, 1992, pp. 17-22.
C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies and M. F. Oliver, “Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Composition of Human Aortic Plaques,” The Lancet, Vol. 344, No. 8931, 1994, pp. 1195-1196.
C. V. Felton, D. Crook, M. J. Davies and M. F. Oliver, “Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques,” Arteriosclero sis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology,” Vol. 17, No. 7, 1997, pp. 1337-1345. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.17.7.1337
S. Sethi, O. Ziouzenkova, H. Ni, D. D. Wagner, J. Plutzky and T. N. Mayadas, “Oxidized Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil Inhibit Leukocyte-Endothelial Interac tions through Activation of PPARα,” Blood, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2002, pp. 1340-1356. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-01-0316
S. G. Kaasgaard, S., G. Holmer, C.-E. Hoy, W. A. Beh rens and J. L. Beare-Rogers, “Effects of Dietary Linseed Oil and Marine Oil on Lipid Peroxidation in Monkey Liver in Vivo and in Vitro,” Lipids, Vol. 27, No. 10, 1992, pp. 740-745. doi:10.1007/BF02535843
V. Bertele, C. Cerletti and G. de Gaetano, “Pathophysi ology of Critical Leg Ischaemia and Mode of Action of Prostaglandins,” Prostaglandins in the Cardiovascular System: Proceedings of the 5th International “Symposium on Prostaglandins in the Cardiovascular System”, Vienna, 22-26 September 1991, pp. 18-26.
H. Knapp, I. Reilly, P. Alessandrini and G. A. FitzGerald, “In Vivo Indexes of Platelet and Vascular Function during Fish-Oil Administration in Patients with Atherosclerosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 314, No. 15, 1986, pp. 937-942. doi:10.1056/NEJM198604103141501
M. R. Buchanan, S. J. Brister and M. C. Bertomeu, “Ei cosanoids, Other Fatty Acid Metabolites and the Cardio vascular System: Are the Present Antithromobtic Ap proaches Rational?” Prostaglandins in the Cardiovascu lar System: Proceedings of the 5th International “Sympo sium on Prostaglandins in the Cardiovascular System”, Vienna, 22-26 September 1991, pp. 18-26.
B. E. Karlstrom, A. E. Jarvi, L. Byberg, L. G. Berglund and B. Vessby, “Fatty Fish in the Diet of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Comparison of the Metabolic Effects of Foods Rich in n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids,” American Jour nal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 94, No. 1, 2011, pp. 26-33.
H. Glauber, P. Wallace, K. Griver and G. Brechtel, “Adverse Metabolic Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 108, No. 5, 1988, pp. 663-668.
P. W. Stacpoole, J. Alig, L. Ammon and S. E. Crockett, “Dose-Response Effects of Dietary Marine Oil on Car bohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Normal Subjects and Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia,” Metabolism, Vol. 38, No. 10, 1989, pp. 946-956.
J. C. Umhau, W. Zhou, R. E. Carson, et al., “Imaging Incorporation of Circulating Docosahexaenoic Acid [DHA] into the Human Brain Using Positron Emission Tomography,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 50, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1259-1268. doi:10.1194/jlr.M800530-JLR200
P. L. Goyens, M. E. Spilker, P. L. Zock, M. B. Katan, and R. P. Mensink, “Conversion of Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Humans Is Influenced by the Absolute Amounts of Al pha-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid in the Diet and Not by Their Ratio,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutri tion, 2006, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 44-53.
N. Hussein, E. Ah-Sing, P. Wilkinson, C. Leach, B. Grif fin and D. Millward, “Physiological Compartmental Analysis of Alpha-Linolenic Acid Metabolism in Adult Humans,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 46, 2005, pp. 269-280. doi:10.1194/jlr.M400225-JLR200
F. Gao, H. Kim, M. Igarashi, et al., “Liver Conversion of Docosahexaenoic and Arachidonic Acids from Their 18-Carbon Precursors in Rats on a DHA-Free but α-LNA-Containing n-3 PUFA Adequate Diet,” Bio chimica et Biophysica Acta, Vol. 1811, No. 7-8, 2011 pp. 484-489. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.05.008
G. Barceló-Coblijn, E. J. Murphy, R. Othman, M. H. Moghadasian, T. Kashour and J. K. Friel, “Flaxseed Oil and Fish-Oil Capsule Consumption Alters Human Red Blood Cell n-3 Fatty Acid Composition: A Multiple Dosing Trial Comparing 2 Sources of n-3 Fatty Acid,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2008, pp. 801-809.
A. Welch, S. Shakya-Shrestha, M. Lentjes, N. J. Ware ham and K. Khaw, “Dietary Intake and Status of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Population of Fish-Eat ing and Non-Fish-Eating Meat-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans and the Precursor-Product Ratio of a-Linolenic Acid to Long-Chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results From the EPIC-Norfolk [Cancer & Nutrition Study] Cohort,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutri tion, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1040-1051.
M. Plourde and S. C. Cunnane, “Extremely Limited Syn thesis of Long-Chain Polyunsaturates in Adults: Implica tions for Their Dietary Essentiality and Use as Supple ments,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2007, pp. 619-634. doi:10.1139/H07-034
R. Khoshdel, S. L. Carney, B. R. Nair and A. Gillies, “A Better Management of Cardiovascular Diseases by Pulse Wave Velocity: Combining Clinical Practice with Clini cal Research Using Evidence-Based Medicine, Clinical Medicine & Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2007, pp. 45-52.
J. Delarue, F. Labarthe and R. Cohen, “Fish-Oil Supple mentation Reduces Stimulation of Plasma Glucose Fluxes during Exercise in Untrained Males,” British Medical Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 90, No. 4, 2003, pp. 777-786.