evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including
consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian
college students. Methods: A total of 2458 college students were invited to
complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety
of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic
beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep
quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios
(OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation
to lifestyle characteristics. Results: A total of 965 males and 1493 female
students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced
poor sleep quality (p = 0.002). Females (OR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.51) and
those who reported consuming ≥3 stimulant beverages per week (OR = 1.88; 95% CI
1.42-2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1-19
alcoholic beverages monthly (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.46-2.49) had a higher odds
of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥3 stimulant beverages per week was
associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), short sleep duration (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.14-1.94), and use of sleep
medication (OR = 2.10; 95% CI 1.35-3.28). Conclusions: Consumption of energy
drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of
poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions
to improve students’ lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and
caffeinated beverages, and overall health.
Cheng, S.H., Shih, C.C., Lee, I.H., Hou, Y.W., Chen, K.C., et al. (2012) A study on the sleep quality of incoming university students. Psychiatry Research, 197, 270-274.
Lund, H.G., Reider, B.D., Whiting, A.B. and Prichard, J.R. (2010) Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 124-132.
Thacher, P.V. (2008) University students and “the all nighter”: Correlates and patterns of students’ engagement in a single night of total sleep deprivation. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 6, 16-31.
IOM (2006) Institute of Medicine, Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research. In: Harvey R.C. and Bruce M.A., Eds., Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem, National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington DC.
Lohsoonthorn, V., Khidir, H., Casillas, G., Lertmaharit, S., Tadesse, M.G., Pensuksan, W.C., Rattananupong, T., Gelaye, B. and Williams, M.A. (2012) Sleep quality and sleep patterns in relation to consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among Thai college students. Sleep Breath (Epub ahead of print).
Hindmarch, I., Rigney, U., Stanley, N., Quinlan, P., Rycroft, J., et al. (2000) A naturalistic investigation of the effects of day-long consumption of tea, coffee and water on alertness, sleep onset and sleep quality. Psychopharmacology, 149, 203-216. doi:10.1007/s002130000383
Malinauskas, B.M., Aeby, V.G., Overton, R.F., CarpenterAeby, T. and Barber-Heidal, K. (2007) A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students. Nutrition Journal, 6, 35. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-35
Buysse, D.J., Reynolds, C.F., Monk, T.H., Berman, S.R. and Kupfer, D.J. (1989) The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28, 193-213.
Freiberg, M.S., Cabral, H.J., Heeren, T.C., Vasan, R.S. and Curtis Ellison, R. (2004) Alcohol consumption and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the US: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Diabetes Care, 27, 2954-2959. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.12.2954
Lowe, B., Spitzer, R.L., Grafe, K., Kroenke, K., Quenter, A., et al. (2004) Comparative validity of three screening questionnaires for DSM-IV depressive disorders and physicians’ diagnoses. Journal of Affective Disorders, 78, 131-140. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00237-9
Lemma, S., Patel, S.V., Tarekegn, Y.A., Tadesse, M.G., Berhane, Y., et al. (2012) The epidemiology of sleep quality, sleep patterns, consumption of caffeinated beverages, and khat use among Ethiopian college students. Sleep Disorders, 2012, 11. doi:10.1155/2012/583510
Marco, C.A., Wolfson, A.R., Sparling, M. and Azuaje, A. (2011) Family socioeconomic status and sleep patterns of young adolescents. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 10, 70-80.
Leibenluft, E., Fiero, P.L. and Rubinow, D.R. (1994) Effects of the menstrual cycle on dependent variables in mood disorder research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 761-781. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950100009002
Nehlig, A. and Boyet, S. (2000) Dose-response study of caffeine effects on cerebral functional activity with a specific focus on dependence. Brain Research, 858, 71-77.
Calamaro, C.J., Mason, T.B. and Ratcliffe, S.J. (2009) Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: Effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning. Pediatrics, 123, e1005-e1010.
Drapeau, C., Hamel-Hebert, I., Robillard, R., Selmaoui, B., Filipini, D., et al. (2006) Challenging sleep in aging: The effects of 200 mg of caffeine during the evening in young and middle-aged moderate caffeine consumers. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 15, 133-141.
Landolt, H.P., Retey, J.V., Tonz, K., Gottselig, J.M., Khatami, R., et al. (2004) Caffeine attenuates waking and sleep electroencephalographic markers of sleep homeostasis in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 1933-1939. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300526