Two aggression questionnaires,
the Revised Swedish Version (AQ-RSV) of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire
(AQ) and the shortened and refined version by Bryant and Smith (BS-AQ) were compared. Both questionnaires identified subscore levels of aggression and there
were significant differences between the groups. On the AQ-RSV subscales, the
violent inmates showed statistically significantly more aggression for
Hostility (p = 0.000), Anger (p = 0.000), Physical Aggression (p = 0.000) and Verbal Aggression (p = 0.01) than the healthy (non-violent)
men. The bodybuilders, all “on” performance-enhancing substances, scored
significantly higher on the Physical Aggression subscale than the healthy men (p = 0.000). Compared to the bodybuilders,
the violent inmates scored significantly higher on the Anger (p = 0.02) and Hostility (p = 0.002) subscales. For the BS-AQ,
where general variance was higher than for the original AQ, some of the above
mentioned relationships were different. The violent inmates still scored significantly
higher than the healthy men for Hostility (p = 0.000), Anger (p = 0.006) and
Physical Aggression (p = 0.000), but
not for Verbal Aggression. The inmates scored significantly higher than the bodybuilders
for Anger (p = 0.006) and Verbal Aggression
(p = 0.006), and the bodybuilders
scored higher than the healthy men on the Physical Aggression (p = 0.002) subscale only. These and
other more complex relationships are discussed in the light of previous
findings. Thus the BS-AQ resulted in more sharply defined relationships and, at
the same time, showed some important differences between the groups studied.
Verbal Aggression does not seem to distinguish violent inmates from healthy
men. Angry bodybuilders tend to express their aggression through Physical Aggression.
Archer, J. and Thanzami, V. (2007) The relation between physical aggression, size and strength, among a sample of young Indian men. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 627-633. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.01.005
Bhasin, S., Storer, T., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R. and Shirazi, A. (1996) The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. The New England Journal of Medicine, 335, 1-7.
Yates, W.R., Perry, P.J., MacIndoe, J., Holman, T. and Ellingrod, V.L. (1999) Psychosexual effects of three doses of testosterone cycling in normal men. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 254-260.
Pope Jr., H.G., Kouri, E.M. and Hudson, J.I. (2000) Effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on mood and aggression in normal men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 133-140. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.2.133
Pagonis, T.A., Angelooulos, N.V., Koukoulis, G.N. and Hadjichristodoulou, C.S. (2006) Psychiatric side effects induced by supraphysiological doses of combinations of anabolic steroids correlate to the severity of abuse. European Psychiatry, 21, 551-562.
White, H.R., Bates, M.E. and Buyske, S. (2001) Adolescence-limited versus persistent delinquency: Extebding Moffitt’s hypothesis into adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 600-609.
Bettencourt, B.A., Talley, A., Benjamin, A.J. and Valentine. J. (2006) Personality and Aggressive behavior under provoking and neutral conditions: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 751-777.
Gardner, K.J., Archer, J. and Jackson, S. (2012) Does maladaptive coping mediate the relationship between borderline personality traits and reactive and proactive depression? Aggressive Behavior, 38, 403-413.
Prochazka, H. and Agren, H. (2001) Aggression in the general Swedish population, measured with a new self-rating inventory: The Aggression Questionnaire— Revised Swedish version (AQ-RSV). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 55, 17-23. doi:10.1080/080394801750093661
Bryant, F.B. and Smith, B.D. (2001) Refining the architecture of aggression: A measurement model for the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 138-167.
Hermans, E.J., Putman, P., Baas, J.M., Koppeschar, H.P. and van Honk, J. (2006) A single administration of testosterone reduces fear-potentiated startle in humans. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 872-874.
Miller, M.W., Patrick, C.J. and Levenstone, G.K. (2002) Affective imagery and the startle response: Probing mechanisms of modulation during pleasant scenes, personal experiences, and discrete negative emotions. Psychophysiology, 39, 519-529.
Davis, C. and Scott-Robertson, L. (2000) A psychological comparison of females with anorexia nervosa and competitive male bodybuilders, body shape ideals in the extreme. Eating Behaviors, 1, 33-46.
Rubinstein, G. (2003) Macho Man: Narcissism, homophobia, agency, communion, and authoritarianism—A comparative study among Israeli bodybuilders and a control group. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4, 100-110. doi:10.1037/1524-918.104.22.168
Varoy, H., Andresen, K. and Mowinkel, P. (2011) The likelyhood of successful crime prevention: Norwegian detainees on preventive detention views on programmes and services organized and provided by the criminal justice system. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 18, 240-247. doi:10.1080/13218719.2010.501780