Anchorage is an important factor in orthodontics and must be properly managed for a successful treatment outcome. Orthodontists have historically used many devices to prevent unwanted tooth movement. The use of miniscrews as a source of skeletal anchorage has become routine in present-day orthodontic practice. Skeletal anchorage opens up alternative treatments, to borderline surgery patients for example, who can now be treated by taking advantage of the biomechanical properties of miniscrews. Because they are bone-borne and provide excellent control over tooth movement in the three spatial planes of movement, mini-implants can be used to serve many purposes in addition to anchorage. Therefore, a variety of successful mini-implant appliances are explained in relation to the three planes of movement: sagittal, vertical, and transverse. The aim of this review is to illustrate the clinical versatility of miniscrews in the three spatial planes of malocclusion in orthodontic and orthopedic management and to define clinical guidelines for the selection, application and biomechanics of mini-implants.
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