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PRODUCCIóN DE FORRAJE EN LOS PASTOS Brachiaria decumbens cv. AMARGO Y Brachiaria brizantha cv. TOLEDO, SOMETIDOS A TRES FRECUENCIAS Y A DOS INTENSIDADES DE DEFOLIACIóN EN CONDICIONES DEL PIEDEMONTE LLANERO COLOMBIANO FORAGE PRODUCTION IN THE GRASSES Brachiaria decumbens cv. AMARGO AND Brachiaria brizantha cv. TOLEDO SUBJECTED TO THREE FREQUENCIES AND TWO OF DEFOLIATION INTENSITIES UNDER CONDITIONS OF COLOMBIAN PLAIN PIEDMONT

CARACTERIZACIóN DEL RENDIMIENTO DE FORRAJE DE UNA PRADERA DE ALFALFA-OVILLO AL VARIAR LA FRECUENCIA E INTENSIDAD DEL PASTOREO

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Temporal and spatial variability of structure dependent properties of a volcanic ash soil under pasture in southern Chile Variaciones temporales y espaciales en las propiedades que dependen de estructura de un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas bajo pastoreo en el sur de Chile

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Nitrogen Losses under Different Cattle Grazing Frequencies and Intensities in a Volcanic Soil of Southern Chile Pérdidas de Nitrógeno bajo Diferentes Frecuencias e Intensidades de Pastoreo en un Suelo Volcánico del Sur de Chile

Keywords: amonio , pastoreo , lixiviación , nitrato , volatilización de amoniaco , ammonium , grazing , leaching , nitrate , NH3 volatilization

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Abstract:

Chilean livestock production systems have intensified over the last years, with increasing amounts of N fertilizer inputs creating the potentiality for environmental damage through N pollution of water and air, so that alternative production strategies have been developed to reduce such environmental impacts. This study assesses N losses under different grazing frequencies and intensities on permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., and Trifolium repens L.) on an Andisol in Southern Chile. Four grazing strategies were evaluated: frequent-heavy (FH), frequent-light (FL), infrequent-heavy (IH), infrequent-light (IL), and a no grazing control (C) treatment, and each with three replicates in a randomized complete block design. Results of the experiment indicate that N leaching losses were greater in the FH treatment (58.7 kg available N ha-1; p < 0.05) and with most of the leaching occurring in spring (39%). On average, N ammonia (NH3) losses were 10% greater in the frequent grazing treatments in relation to the infrequent grazing treatments, since there were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among individual grazing events for FH, FL and IH. Results indicate that grazing frequency affects leaching losses while grazing intensity affects ammonia emissions from the grassland. Grazing with dairy cows in Southern Chile should consider this environmental constraint to ensure sustainable production over time. Los sistemas chilenos de producción ganadera se han intensificado en los últimos a os con el uso creciente de fertilizantes que aportan nitrógeno (N), creando el potencial de da o ambiental a través de la contaminación del agua y el aire con N, de manera que se han dise ado estrategias alternativas de producción con el objetivo de reducir este potencial impacto. El presente estudio busca determinar las pérdidas de N bajo diferentes frecuencias e intensidades de pastoreo en una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., y Trifolium repens L.) en un Andisol del sur de Chile. Se evaluaron cuatro estrategias de pastoreo: frecuente-intenso (FH), frecuente-laxo (FL), infrecuente-intenso (IH), infrecuente-laxo (IL), y un control (C) o tratamiento sin pastoreo, cada uno con tres repeticiones en un dise o de bloques completos al azar. Las pérdidas de N por lixiviación fueron mayores en el tratamiento FH (59 kg N disponible ha-1; P ≤ 0,05) donde la mayor parte de las pérdidas ocurrieron en la primavera (39%). En promedio, las pérdidas de amoniaco (NH3) fueron 10% más al

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