All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Application Layer Systematic Network Coding for Sliced H.264/AVC Video Streaming

DOI: 10.1155/2012/916715

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Application Layer Forward Error Correction (AL-FEC) with rateless codes can be applied to protect the video data over lossy channels. Expanding Window Random Linear Codes (EW RLCs) are a flexible unequal error protection fountain coding scheme which can provide prioritized data transmission. In this paper, we propose a system that exploits systematic EW RLC for H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC) slice-partitioned data. The system prioritizes slices based on their PSNR contribution to reconstruction as well as temporal significance. Simulation results demonstrate usefulness of using relative slice priority with systematic codes for multimedia broadcast applications. 1. Introduction H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) [1] is currently the most commonly used video coding standard, which is gaining widespread use in the emerging communication standards and applications. Two key challenges of multimedia communication applications over wireless networks are high and varying error characteristics of underlying communications channels and huge heterogeneity of users’ equipment. One of the solutions is to use channel coding techniques which could recover the original data despite losses. The latest state-of-the-art solutions like those based on Reed Solomon (RS) codes are inflexible because the code rate has to be fixed in advance. Moreover, the encoding and decoding operations are quite complex especially for large Galois Field. For such codes, the error characteristics of the channel must be known in advance in order to adjust the code rate to it. This solution does not extend well to multiple receivers as then only a worst-case erasure channel can be assumed for all receivers. To enable communications in the presence of packet losses, rateless Digital Fountain Raptor codes [2] have become standardized solution in many wireless systems such as Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld (DVB-H) [3–5], Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS), and mobile Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) [6]. Another class of rateless codes which have been gaining increased popularity for applications in wireless broadcast/cellular networks are Random Linear Codes (RLCs) [7, 8]. RLCs show near-capacity performance over erasure channels even for low codeword lengths [9, 10]. In addition, the emerging networking concepts, such as hybrid broadcast/cellular networks (with users equipped with multiple interfaces) or device-to-device communications, offer a number of opportunities for achieving network coding gains using RLC [11]. Traditional solutions for reliable

References

[1]  T. Wiegand, G. J. Sullivan, G. Bj?ntegaard, and A. Luthra, “Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 560–576, 2003.
[2]  A. Shokrollahi, “Raptor codes,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 2551–2567, 2006.
[3]  “ETSI TS 102 005, digital video broadcasting (dvb): specification for the use of video and audio coding in dvb services delivered directly over ip protocols,” ETSI Tech. Spec., 2006.
[4]  S. Nazir, D. Vukobratovic, and V. Stankovic, “Expanding window random linear codes for data partitioned H.264 video transmission over DVB-H network,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP-IEEE '11), Brussels, Belgium, September 2011.
[5]  C. Hellge, E. Guinea Torre, D. Gmez-Barquero, T. Schierl, and T. Wiegand, “HDTV and 3DTV services over DVB-T2 using multiple PLPs with SVC and MVC,” in Proceedings of the 61st Annual IEEE Broadcast Symposium, Alexandria, Va, USA, October 2011.
[6]  L. Al-Jobouri, M. Fleury, and M. Ghanbari, “Raptor coding of H.264 data-partitioned video over a WiMAX channel,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE '11), pp. 341–342, January 2011.
[7]  D. S. Lun, M. Médard, R. Koetter, and M. Effros, “On coding for reliable communication over packet networks,” Physical Communication, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2008.
[8]  J. Jin, B. Li, and T. Kong, “Is random network coding helpful in WiMAX?” in Proceedings of the 27th IEEE Communications Society Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM '08), pp. 191–195, Phoenix, Ariz, USA, April 2008.
[9]  D. Vukobratovi? and V. Stankovi?, “Unequal error protection random linear coding strategies for erasure channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1243–1252, May 2012.
[10]  “ETSI TS 126 346, universal mobile telecommunications system (umts); multimedia broadcast/multicast service (mbms); protocols and codecs,” ETSI Tech. Spec., 2005.
[11]  R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S. Y. R. Li, and R. W. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216, 2000.
[12]  A. Albanese, J. Blomer, J. Edmonds, M. Luby, and M. Sudan, “Priority encoding transmission,” in Proceedings of the IEEE FOCS, pp. 604–612, Santa Fe, NM, USA, November 1994.
[13]  U. Horn, K. Stuhlmüller, M. Link, and B. Girod, “Robust internet video transmission based on scalable coding and unequal error protection,” Signal Processing, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 77–94, 1999.
[14]  Y. Lin, B. Liang, and B. Li, “Priority random linear codes in distributed storage systems,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1653–1667, 2009.
[15]  K. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, and S. C. Cheung, “Video streaming with network coding,” Journal of Signal Processing Systems, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 319–333, 2010.
[16]  M. Halloush and H. Radha, “Network coding with multi-Generation mixing: analysis and applications for video communication,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '08), pp. 198–202, Beijing, China, May 2008.
[17]  X. Liu, G. Cheung, and C. N. Chuah, “Structured network coding and cooperative wireless ad-hoc peer-to-peer repair for WWAN video broadcast,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 730–741, 2009.
[18]  N. Thomos, J. Chakareski, and P. Frossard, “Randomized network coding for UEP video delivery in overlay networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME '09), pp. 730–733, New York, NY, USA, July 2009.
[19]  S. Nazir, D. Vukobratovic, and V. Stankovic, “Performance evaluation of Raptor and Random Linear Codes for H.264/AVC video transmission over DVB-H networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE ICASSP, Prague, Czech Republic, May 2011.
[20]  S. Nazir, D. Vukobratovic, and V. Stankovic, “Unequal error protection for data partitioned H.264/AVC video streaming with Raptor and Random Linear Codes for DVB-H networks,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, Barcelona, Spain, July 2011.
[21]  D. Vukobratovic, V. Stankovic, D. Sejdinovic, L. Stankovic, and Z. Xiong, “Scalable video multicast using expanding window fountain codes,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 11, pp. 1094–1104, 2009.
[22]  D. Vukobratovi? and V. Stankovi?, “Unequal error protection random linear coding for multimedia communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP '10), pp. 280–285, Saint Malo, France, October 2010.
[23]  N. Thomos, S. Argyropoulos, N. V. Boulgouris, and M. G. Strintzis, “Robust transmission of H.264/AVC streams using adaptive group slicing and unequal error protection,” Eurasip Journal on Applied Signal Processing, vol. 2006, Article ID 051502, 2006.
[24]  E. Baccaglini, T. Tillo, and G. Olmo, “Slice sorting for unequal loss protection of video streams,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 15, pp. 581–584, 2008.
[25]  T. Tillo, E. Baccaglini, and G. Olmo, “Unequal protection of video data according to slice relevance,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1572–1582, 2011.
[26]  H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, and T. Wiegand, “Overview of the scalable video coding extension of the H.264/AVC standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1103–1120, 2007.
[27]  ITU-T Recommendation H.264. Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services. 2010.
[28]  H. Shojania and B. Li, “Random network coding on the iPhone: fact or fiction?” in Proceedings of the 19th International Workshop on Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV '09), pp. 37–42, Williamsburg, Va, USA, June 2009.
[29]  S. Nazir, D. Vukobratovic, and V. Stankovic, “Scalable broadcasting of sliced H.264/AVC over DVB-H networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICON '11), Singapore, December 2011.
[30]  H.264/AVC Reference Software, http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus