The spatial distribution of chironomid communities in the littoral zone (0-20 m) of the western coast of the southern Baikal basin is investigated. The fauna is composed of 16 species and forms of chironomid larvae, comprising 10 communities. It has been found that the communities are characterized by rather poor species diversity; Shannon’s index varies from 0.7 to 2.1 bit. Their distribution is affected by hydro-lithodynamic conditions, type of bottom sediments and macrophyte development. The peak of maximal biomass of chironomid larvae on the facies of non-rounded rock debris near Berezovy Cape is recorded in spring.