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STUDI BIO-EPIDEMIOLOGI DAN ANALISIS SPASIAL KASUS MALARIA DAERAH LINTAS BATAS INDONESIA – MALAYSIA (PULAU SEBATIK) KABUPATEN NUNUKAN, PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TIMUR

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Abstract:

. Malaria remains to be a public health problem in Nunukan District (especially Sebatik island), East Kalimantan Province. Vector control programs using long lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), have been conducted by the Health Office. Yet malaria cases were still occurred on the previous years. Comprehensive research was conducted to determine the specific vector control strategies based on the vectors bionomic, spatial distributions of malaria cases and breeding habitats (GIS mapping and distance index analyses) and susceptible status of malaria vectors against insecticides. The study revealed that three mosquito species were remain as potential malaria vectors such as: An. balabacensis and An. maculatus, the breeding habitats were fresh water wells/ponds and streams. In the coastal areas brackish water ponds and lagoon were found as the breeding habitats of An. sundaicus was recognized as malaria vector. Both malaria vectors (An. balabacensis and An. maculatus), were found resistant to insecticides Permethrin and Lambdacyhalothrin and tolerance against Malathion. Alternative insecticide should be considered as a replacement. Spatial analysis found that malaria cases were distributed on clumped/cluster, buffer zones against breeding habitat (<400 meters), indicate local transmission (indigenous) due to vector behaviour. Integrated vector management by using indoors treatment and breeding habitats application by using bio-larvicides such as bacillus or insect growth regulator/IGR, is recommended. In an effort to maintain sustainability of the malaria programs, community participation should be developed. Key Words: Malaria, Spatial distribition, Cases Distance Index, Sebatik Island Abstrak. Malaria masih menjadi masalah kesehatan utama di kabupaten Nunukan (khususnya Pulau sebatik), provinsi Kalimantan Timur. Program pengendalian vektor menggunakan kelabu berinsektisida /Long Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN), telah dilakukan oleh Dinas Kesehatan. Walaupun demikian, kasus malaria masih banyak ditemukan beberapa tahun lalu. Penelitian komprehensif telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui distribusi spasial kasus malaria dengan pemetaan menggunakaan geographical information system (GIS) sehubungan dengan distribusi breeding habitat positip jentik nyamuk vektor. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menentukan strategi pengendalian vektor malaria spesifik, berdasarkan beberapa faktor bionomik, distribusi spasial kasus malaria dan breeding habitat positip jentik nyamuk vektor dengan pemetaan GIS dan analisis indek jarak (distance index analyses) dan status kerentanan

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