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Buildings  2013 

A Natural Ventilation Alternative to the Passivhaus Standard for a Mild Maritime Climate

DOI: 10.3390/buildings3010061

Keywords: passivhaus, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery, natural ventilation, energy efficiency, sustainability, thermal comfort, air quality, zero carbon buildings, energy modeling, energy retrofit

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Abstract:

This study examines the need in mild maritime climates, such as the southern areas of the UK, for mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) as required by the German Passivhaus standard. It considers the comfort, air quality and energy impacts of MVHR versus natural ventilation and reviews the post-occupancy monitoring data of two flats in Cardiff designed to Passivhaus standards, one of which had been operated as a naturally ventilated building rather than with MVHR. The energy consumption of this free-running flat was significantly lower (36 kWh primary energy/m2a) than the Passivhaus Planning Package modeling had predicted (93 kWh primary energy/m2a) with no adverse effects on occupant comfort, air quality or excessive humidity, and advantages of lower capital cost and maintenance. The paper concludes that in climates with mild winters and cool summers the use of MVHR could be omitted without compromising comfort levels and achieving at least equivalent energy savings resulting from adopting the Passivhaus model and at a lower capital cost. This suggests the potential for a naturally ventilated, ultra-low energy model with lower capital investment requirements and lower disruption when applied to retrofit that would facilitate its mainstream adoption.

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