This research is the result of a Work of Course Completion Degree in Physical Education, Faculty of Science and Technology – State Public University. The research refers to the period 2011-2012 and reflects on the contributions of Historical-Cultural Theory to the process of building autonomy in physical education classes. It was adopted as a working methodology of the research literature review. The theoretical approach is based on the critically-surpassing in Physical Education as well as the contributions of Historical and Cultural Theory. Such approaches stem from the same epistemological basis, the historical and dialectical materialism. In a first bibliographical survey we found that there is a lack in the literature regarding research that sought to investigate the process of building autonomy in school physical education classes. The results show that, historically, it has been shown that teaching practices reductionist in Physical Education, marked only by the appreciation of the perfection of the body, technical and physical performance or recoverer sport that does not include its historical and little or nothing to assist students in the process construction of their autonomy and empowerment in the face of cultural manifestations of body movement.