Formation factors of Belarus settlement system are analyzed in the article. Spatial and temporal trends in urban and rural settlement system of Belarus for the period of 1979-2009 years are characterized. Spatial and temporal shifts in the distribution of urban and rural population and the structure of urban and rural settlements are detected. The types of rural settlement of Belarus are presented. The features of distribution and demographic development of new Belarusian rural settlements form– agrotowns - are developed.