The genus Candobrasilopsis gen. nov. is here described, with C. rochai gen. nov. sp. nov. as type species, from the alluvial valley of the Upper Paraná River. The enigmatic Candonopsis brasiliensis Sars, 1901 is here redescribed and transferred to this new genus, the new combination being Candobrasilopsis brasiliensis (Sars, 1901). The new candonid genus belongs to the tribe Candonopsini, because of the absence of the proximal seta on the caudal ramus. It is closely related to Latinopsis Karanovic & Datry, 2009, because of the relatively short terminal segment of the mandibular palp (length less than 1.5 times the basal width, while this segment is longer than three times the basal width in Candonopsis) and the large and stout b-seta on the T1. However, it differs markedly from Latinopsis in the size and shape of the calcified inner lamellae of both valves and in the type of hemipenis. We also discuss the doubtful allocation of several other genera to the Candonopsini, raise Abcandonopsis Karanovic, 2004 to generic status and reassess the uncertain position of Candonopsis anisitsi Daday, 1905 within Latinopsis.