This paper examines the dynamics in population growth and sustainability of food grain production in West Bengal. Linkage between population growth and food production is an issue of debate since late eighteen century when Malthus predicted that population growth will outstrip the food supply. Though fertility level in West Bengal reached to bellow replacement (TFR is <2.1) but population will increase till next few decades due to the mechanism of population momentum. Average annual growth rate has declined over the last two decades but absolute growth in the population increases the demand for food. There has been remarkable increase in the food grain production in West Bengal after 1980s but till the current level of food production is not sufficient enough to meet the domestic food requirement, though this gap decreased over the time. Besides, slow growth in the agricultural in the last few years is another concern of sustainable food production. Population growth in the West Bengal has significant association with food grain production and agriculture. Cultivable land and net sown area has reduced significantly due to the rapid growth of population. Cropping intensity increased drastically because of the reduction of net sown area and increase in population. Hence, it is very essential to increase the current level of food production more than proportional of population growth to ensure the food security in the near future in West Bengal.