Background The need to obtain information on the dental prosthetic treatment needs (DPTNs) of inpatients with schizophrenia is unrecognized. This study aims to assess the DPTNs of this population and investigate the association between these needs and related factors. Methods The results of an oral health survey involving 1,103 schizophrenic adult inpatients in a long-term care institution in Taiwan were used. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic analyses were used to measure the independent effects of the characteristics of each subject on their DPTNs. Results Of the subjects, 805 (73.0%) were men and 298 (27.0%) were women. The mean age was 50.8 years. A total of 414 (37.5%) required fixed prosthesis, whereas 700 (63.5%) needed removable prosthesis. Multivariate analyses show that fixed prosthesis is associated with age only after adjusting for other potential independent variables. Older subjects who had a lower educational attainment or a longer length of stay required removable prosthesis. Conclusions The findings of this study show that the DPTNs of schizophrenic inpatients are not being met. Therefore, a special approach to the dental prosthetic treatment of these patients should be developed.