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Quantification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Leafy and Underground Vegetables: A Case Study Around Panipat City, Haryana, India

Keywords: acetonitrile , C-18 material , ultrasonicator , PAHs , UV-detector

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Abstract:

Food ingestion is the most important means of human exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were observed in all vegetables which is matter of great concern because diet is the major source of human exposure to PAHs and major dietary source of human are cereals and vegetables. Our main objective of investigation was to assess the concentration of individual PAHs compounds in leafy and underground vegetable samples. In the present study the PAHs concentrations were determined by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). All the samples were collected from 9 different agriculture fields around Panipat city, Haryana and PAHs concentration was identified in all the vegetables (leafy and underground) and soil (0-10 cm upper layer). The total PAHs concentration in leafy vegetables, underground vegetables and soil ranged from 31.86 to 85.55, 22.89 to 37.73 and 130.18 to 175.98 g kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The dominant PAHs in soil and vegetable samples were Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene and Pyrene. The concentration of lower-molecular weight PAHs compounds were found to be greater than higher molecular weight PAHs in all types of vegetables. Leafy vegetables are found to be more contaminated with higher concentration of PAHs as compared to underground vegetables.

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