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Hypoxia-regulated target genes implicated in tumor metastasis

DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-102

Keywords: Hypoxia , Hypoxia-inducible factor , Target genes , Metastasis , Epithelial-mesenchymal transition

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Abstract:

Hypoxia is an important microenvironmental factor that induces cancer metastasis. Hypoxia/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulates many important steps of the metastatic processes, especially epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is one of the crucial mechanisms to cause early stage of tumor metastasis. To have a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxia-regulated metastasis, various hypoxia/HIF-1α-regulated target genes are categorized into different classes including transcription factors, histone modifiers, enzymes, receptors, kinases, small GTPases, transporters, adhesion molecules, surface molecules, membrane proteins, and microRNAs. Different roles of these target genes are described with regards to their relationship to hypoxia-induced metastasis. We hope that this review will provide a framework for further exploration of hypoxia/HIF-1α-regulated target genes and a comprehensive view of the metastatic picture induced by hypoxia.

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