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Acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation in healthy intermittent smokers

DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-6-22

Keywords: Sputum, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Inflammation, Tobacco, Carbon Monoxide

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Abstract:

We investigated acute effects of smoking on inflammation in 16 healthy intermittent smokers in an open randomised cross-over study. We compared effects of smoking of two cigarettes on inflammatory markers in exhaled air, induced sputum, blood and urine at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours and outcomes without smoking. All sputum and blood parameters were log transformed and analysed using a linear mixed effect model.Significant findings were: Smoking increased exhaled carbon monoxide between 0 and 1 hour, and induced a greater decrease in blood eosinophils and sputum lymphocytes between 0 and 3 hours compared to non-smoking. Compared to non-smoking, smoking induced a greater interleukin-8 release from stimulated blood cells between 0 and 3 hours, and a greater increase in sputum lymphocytes and neutrophils between 3 and 12 hours.We conclude that besides an increase in inflammation, as known from chronic smoking, there is also a suppressive effect of smoking two cigarettes on particular inflammatory parameters.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide, and its prevalence is still rising [1]. In order to develop strategies for its prevention and treatment, it is important to understand the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease. Since chronic smoking is the main risk factor to develop COPD most studies in this field have been carried out in chronic (ex)smokers with or without COPD. It is also important to study the initial response to cigarette smoke to better understand the effects of chronic smoking, since repetitive acute smoke effects may cumulate and ultimately lead to irreversible lung damage associated with COPD. In addition, to appropriately evaluate the impact of chronic smoking, the "background" effects of acute smoking should be determined.Until now, only a few studies have investigated acute effects of smoking in humans [2]. Unfortunately, these studies investigate

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