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Limitations of selective deltamethrin application for triatomine control in central coastal Ecuador

DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-20

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Surveys for triatomines revealed peridomestic infestation with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Panstrongylus howardi, with infestation indices remaining high during the study (13%, 17%, and 10%, at initial, 6-month, and 12-month visits, respectively), which indicates a limitation of this strategy for triatomine population control. Infestation was found 6 and 12 months after spraying with deltamethrin. In addition, a large number of previously vector-free domestic units also were found infested at the 6- and 12-month surveys, which indicates new infestations by sylvatic triatomines. The predominance of young nymphs and adults suggests new infestation events, likely from sylvatic foci. In addition, infection with Trypanosoma cruzi was found in 65%, 21% and 29% at initial, 6-month and 12-month visits, respectively. All parasites isolated (n = 20) were identified as TcI.New vector control strategies need to be devised and evaluated for reduction of T. cruzi transmission in this region.Chagas disease in Ecuador affects approximately 230,000 people, and 6.2 million people are at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, its causative agent [1]. In the absence of satisfactory therapy or vaccines against Chagas disease, control of the disease relies primarily on interrupting transmission by eliminating domestic populations of triatomines. Triatomines Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Panstrongylus howardi are important vectors of Chagas disease in the Manabí province, located on the central coast of Ecuador, and there is evidence of host (vectors and reservoirs) infected with T. cruzi, circulating in the area [2-6].R. ecuadoriensis is widely distributed in Ecuador's central and southern coast [7], its southern Andean region, and in northern Perú [3]. In the coastal region, R. ecuadoriensis is usually found in association with Phytelephas aequatorialis, an endemic palm species, [5,8] and in nests of squirrel (Sciurus stramineus) and bird (Campylorhynchus fasciatus) [6]. In this region, th

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