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L type Ca2+ channel blockers prevent oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia and TRPM8 overexpression in rats

DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-7

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Cold hyperalgesia was assessed by the acetone test. Oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg), sodium oxalate (1.3 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected i.p. on days 1 and 2. Ca2+ (diltiazem, nifedipine and ethosuximide) and Na+ (mexiletine) channel blockers were administered p.o. simultaneously with oxaliplatin or oxalate on days 1 and 2.Oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg) induced cold hyperalgesia and increased in the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) mRNA levels in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Furthermore, oxalate (1.3 mg/kg) significantly induced the increase in TRPM8 protein in the DRG. Treatment with oxaliplatin and oxalate (500 μM for each) also increased the TRPM8 mRNA levels and induced Ca2+ influx and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) nuclear translocation in cultured DRG cells. These changes induced by oxalate were inhibited by nifedipine, diltiazem and mexiletine. Interestingly, co-administration with nifedipine, diltiazem or mexiletine prevented the oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia and increase in the TRPM8 mRNA levels in the DRG.These data suggest that the L type Ca2+ channels/NFAT/TRPM8 pathway is a downstream mediator for oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia, and that Ca2+ channel blockers have prophylactic potential for acute neuropathy.Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, is widely used for treatment of colorectal cancer. However, oxaliplatin frequently causes severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. Acute neuropathy is peculiar to oxaliplatin and includes acral paresthesias enhanced by exposure to cold [1-4]; the acute neuropathy is not attributed to morphological damage to the nerve [5,6]. On the other hand, the chronic neuropathy is characterized by loss of sensory and motor function after long-term oxaliplatin treatment, and it is similar to cisplatin-induced neurological symptoms [4]. Recently, we reported that repeated administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hyperalgesia in the early phase and mechanical allodynia in the l

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