Spermatozoa are susceptible to peroxidative damages due to the high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in its cytoplasmic membranes. Studies have shown that the spermatozoa and seminal leukocytes are capable to generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) that may reduce the viability and fertility of spermatozoa. However, small quantities of ROSs are necessary to initiation of the function of spermatozoa, as well as, capacitation and induction of the acrosomic reaction. Thus an equilibrium between the production of ROSs and antioxidative protection is necessary to assure the spermatic function. The antioxidative protection of the semen is supplied by enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, vitamin C, vitamin E and other substances (albumine, glutathione, taurine, hypotaurine) found inside of spermatic cells or in seminal plasma. Thus, the objective of this revision is characterize how reactive oxygen species cause irreparable damages to spermatozoa membranes and the importance of the antioxidative protection of the semen that can be promoted by the addition of simple minerals like selenium and vitamins (e.g. ascorbic acid).