M nnig (1933) described Setaria thwaitei from a sable antelope, Hippotragus niger, the type host, as well as from roan antelope, Hippotragus equinus, and waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus. Yeh (1959) considered Setaria thwaitei to be synonym of Setaria hornbyi. Material collected from roan antelopes, sable antelopes and gemsbuck, Oryx gazella, from several localities in the north and south of South Africa, together with M nnig's (1933) material, were re-examined. Measurements of the adult worms obtained in this study were compared with those in the original description of the species. Scanning electron microscopy of the anterior and posterior regions of the female worms confirmed S. thwaitei as a valid species.