Systematic of the gudgeons (Gobioninae) is one of the most dynamically evolving branches of the modern ichthyology. Newly implemented methods of molecular biology, modern species concepts (i.e. phylogenetic and evolutionary) and thorough investigations in the field of internal and external morphology caused in better understand of diversity of this group of fishes. Despite some new species of gudgeons were described, diversity of gobionins still seems much underestimated. It is a serious obstacle in the field of conservation of species and habitats, which is doubtless necessary. It implies that further and consecutively investigations on diversity, phylogenetics, and systematics of this subfamily are still indispensable.