Insulin resistance exists in various chronic liver diseases such as fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, etc. Insulin resistance not only participates in the development of chronic liver diseases but also affects the efficacy of drug treatment. Paying more attention to diagnosis and treatment of insulin resistance will enhance the therapeutic effect and improve the prognosis of the patients. Traditional Chinese medicine has displayed its characteristics and advantage in treating insulin resistance. Investigation to chronic liver diseases based on lifestyle interference, exploration of the syndrome mechanism of insulin resistance, and scientific evaluation of the efficacy of Chinese herbal prescriptions will contribute to the research of traditional Chinese medicine in preventing and treating insulin resistance in chronic liver diseases.