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Islamic mysticism - sufism

DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn1137481n

Keywords: Sufism , Islam , Dervishes , tariqa , spread of Islam

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Abstract:

Basic concepts of Sufism are introduced along with pointing out that the cause of occurrence of that original learning should be sought in gradual distancing of the Islamic state and its leaders from the great moral ideals and value system set by the Prophet Mohammed and the first caliphs. The established periodization starts from the classical period dominated by excessive influence of some scholars and the tendency of respecting local traditions, continues with the medieval period marked by systematization and achieving the peak of Sufi thought through acting of a number of great mystics and ends with the modern period characterized by its prevalence and enormous global impact, adapting to constantly changing conditions and efforts for giving an adequate response to the challenges of colonialism, which inevitably led to gradual weakening of Sufism. Overlapping between mysticism, Hellenistic philosophy and other religious systems is also pointed out, as an inexhaustible source of new, original and creative theological syntheses, that significantly dynamized the already established Islamic doctrine prone to repeating fixed patterns, as well as a great contribution of Sufism to the spread of Islam in different parts of the world.

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