Labour market has gained increasing protagonism in recent political debates, economic and media to explain the high rates of unemployment and the difficulties in recovering the path of economic growth in the Spanish economy. But most of these arguments are somewhat shortsighted because they usually forget the historical perspective. With this in mind, this work aims to think about three main issues. First, it analyzes the basic characteristics of the labour market for almost forty years of Franco's dictatorship. Second, it analyzes the labour legacies of dictatorship and the changes in the labour market during the democratic period. Third, it attempts to question to what extent labour market is responsible for the difficulties of the Spanish economy in the early XXIst century.