linical significant cervical lesions are often correlated with epithelial cell abnormalities on cervical smears. The histologic lesions which are found in uterine cervix can not be always established only with conventional cytology. Thus, it is very important that any cytologic abnormality be subsequently correlated with biopsy for certification of a cervical lesion. The results of cervical smears and tissue diagnoses over a five year period were reviewed, being examined the correlations between the cervico-vaginal smears and the surgical specimens. All cervical smears with their subsequent biopsies and histerectomies, between 2003-2008 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients ages were between 18 and 70 years old. The cervical cytology records were verifyied and the cytodiagnosis were compared with the correspondent histopathological diagnosis. From the 5700 cervico-vaginal smears, diagnosticated in the mentioned period of time, 3835 were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. The others of 1865 presented squamous and glandular lesions, and cervical carcinoma. One case, of a 20 years old girl, had a cytodiagnostic with suspicion of sarcoma, which was confirmed on biopsy and subsequent histerectomy as a cervical embrional rhabdomyosarcoma. The exfoliative cytologic cervico-vaginal test is very important in precocious diagnosis of intraepithelial cervical lesions, especially when it its correlated with histopathologic examination. The immunohistochemical and molecular testing of high-risk HPV will contribute to a better management of cervical precancerous lesions.