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Spatial memory decline after masticatory deprivation and aging is associated with altered laminar distribution of CA1 astrocytes

DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-13-23

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Abstract:

Eating a SD variably affected the number of astrocytes in the CA1 hippocampal field, and SD mice performed worse on water maze memory tests than HD mice. Three-month-old mice in both groups could remember/find a hidden platform in the water maze. However, 6-month-old SD mice, but not HD mice, exhibited significant spatial memory dysfunction. Both SD and HD 18-month-old mice showed spatial memory decline. Older SD mice had astrocyte hyperplasia in the strata pyramidale and oriens compared to 6-month-old mice. Aging induced astrocyte hypoplasia at 18 months in the lacunosum-moleculare layer of HD mice.Taken together, these results suggest that the impaired spatial learning and memory induced by masticatory deprivation and aging may be associated with altered astrocyte laminar distribution and number in the CA1 hippocampal field. The underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown and merit further investigation.Previous studies have established an association between chewing activity and cognition [1-3]. The systemic effects of long-term masticatory imbalances are associated with neurodegeneration and are a risk factor for senile dementia in humans [4] and memory deficits in experimental animals [5]. To investigate the impact of masticatory imbalances on various activities and physiological factors, experimental masticatory deprivation has been modelled experimentally in animals using a modified diet [6], molar removal [7,8], or occlusion disharmony modelled by "bite-raised" condition [9,10]. These approaches revealed that masticatory dysfunction reduces spatial learning and memory in water maze tests in rats [8,11] and mice [11-13], and that these deficits seem to increase with aging and time after tooth loss [8]. Induced molarless subjects, revealed reduced neurogenesis in young rats [14], and there is a loss of astrocytes, neurons and dendritic spines in the hippocampus of aged rats and mice [7,14,15]. Young mice fed a soft diet show reduced neurogenesis and BDNF level

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