IH induced only transiently increased expression of EPO mRNA in hippocampus, which was continued in (SH)-exposed mice. IH, but not SH, adversely affected two forms of spatial learning in the water maze, and increased markers of oxidative stress. However, on a standard place training task, mice treated with exogenously administered EPO displayed normal learning, and were protected from the spatial learning deficits observed in vehicle-treated (C) littermates exposed to IH. Moreover, anxiety levels were increased in IH as compared to normoxia, while no changes in anxiety emerged in EPO-treated mice. Additionally, C mice, but not EPO-treated IH-exposed mice had significantly elevated levels of NADPH oxidase expression, as well as increased MDA and 8-OHDG levels in cortical and hippocampal lysates.The oxidative stress responses and neurobehavioral impairments induced by IH during sleep are mediated, at least in part, by imbalances between EPO expression and increased NADPH oxidase activity, and thus pharmacological agents targeting EPO expression in CNS may provide a therapeutic strategy in sleep-disordered breathing.