The most recent phase of internationalization and globalization is characterized by the growing infl uence of non-governmental organizations that have had an impact on health. Key threats of strategic relevance for health, in addition to global warming, are the global divides in terms of demographic development and the burden of disease, social inequity, migration of populations, migration of health professionals, the inequitable terms of trade, and the consequences of the recent global monetary crisis. This paper addresses opportunities as set forth in the Millennium Development Goals, a revival of primary health care, and the necessary resetting of global aid in terms of international donor harmonization and national coordination, e.g., through a Sector Wide Approach (SWAp). We recommend: (1) A Global Code of Conduct for NGOs; (2) A renewed major effort of the United Nations community to achieve the Millennium Development Goals as planned; (3) Further development of the concept of SWAp’s to put the receiving governments into the “driver’s seat”. To this end, the achievement of the Paris/Accra criteria is essential, i.e., (4) To strengthen the linkage between governments and donors with a priority for primary health care services; and (5) To compensate the “sending” countries for basic investments in the upbringing and education of migrating professionals.